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Irak Kontinent

Mnoho výše uvedených oblastí je seizmicky aktivních a zemětřesení zde nejsou vzácným jevem. Týká se to ostrovních oblouků na styku litosférických desek, např. Japonsko, Tchaj-wan, Sumatra, ale i mnoha oblastí alo-himálajského systému (např. Malá Asie, Kavkaz, Írán, Kašmír) i jiných zlomových oblastí (např. Sečuánská pánev). Die meisten heutigen zentral- und nordasiatische Staaten waren bis zu deren Zerfall 1990/91 Teil der Sowjetunion und somit planwirtschaftlich organisiert. Die Wirtschaft dieser Länder ist großteils von Landwirtschaft und Schwerindustrie bestimmt.

Most of the era of the Sasanian Empire was overshadowed by the Roman–Persian Wars, which raged on the western borders at Anatolia, the Western Caucasus, Mesopotamia, and the Levant, for over 700 years. These wars ultimately exhausted both the Romans and the Sasanians and led to the defeat of both by the Muslim invasion. Volleyball is the second most popular sport in Iran.[537][538] Having won the 2011 and 2013 Asian Men's Volleyball Championships, men's national team is currently the strongest team in Asia, and ranks eighth in the FIVB World Rankings (as of July 2017[update]).

In September 2018, the Iranian ambassador to the United Nations asked the UN to condemn Israeli threats against Tehran and also bring Israel's nuclear program under the International Atomic Energy Agency's supervision.[293] The history of architecture in Iran goes back to the seventh millennium BC.[443] Iranians were among the first to use mathematics, geometry and astronomy in architecture. Iranian architecture displays great variety, both structural and aesthetic, developing gradually and coherently out of earlier traditions and experience.[444] The guiding motif of Iranian architecture is its cosmic symbolism, "by which man is brought into communication and participation with the powers of heaven".[445] V Asii žijí přibližně dvě třetiny obyvatelstva světa. Nejvíce obyvatel má Čína s 1,4 mld. osob. Ruhollah Khomeini, a radical Muslim cleric, became an active critic of the Shah's far-reaching series of reforms known as the White Revolution. Khomeini publicly denounced the government, and was arrested and imprisoned for 18 months. After his release in 1964, he refused to apologize, and was eventually sent into exile. Der nördlichste Festlandspunkt Asiens und der Erde ist Kap Tscheljuskin auf der Taimyrhalbinsel (77° 43′ 21″ N), der östlichste Punkt Kap Deschnjow auf der Tschuktschen-Halbinsel (169° 39′ 7″ W). Von dort bis zum westlichsten Punkt Asiens, dem Kap Baba in Kleinasien (26° 3′ 50″ O), sind es 8.223 km Luftlinie. Der südlichste Festlandspunkt des asiatischen Kontinents ist das Kap Tanjung Piai auf der Malaiischen Halbinsel (1° 15′ 57″ N).

Irak - Wikipedi

Video: Irak - kontinent: Ázia - turistický sprievodca Dromedár

Football has been regarded as the most popular sport in Iran, with the men's national team having won the Asian Cup on three occasions. The men's national team has maintained its position as Asia's best team, ranking 1st in Asia and 33th in the world according to the FIFA World Rankings (as of May 2020[update]).[536] Percentages of spoken language continue to be a point of debate, as many opt that they are politically motivated; most notably regarding the largest and second largest ethnicities in Iran, the Persians and Azerbaijanis. Percentages given by the CIA's World Factbook include 53% Persian, 16% Azerbaijani, 10% Kurdish, 7% Mazenderani and Gilaki, 7% Luri, 2% Turkmen, 2% Balochi, 2% Arabic, and 2% the remainder Armenian, Georgian, Neo-Aramaic, and Circassian.[3]

Nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg, verstärkt ab den 1960er-Jahren, war das wirtschaftliche Wachstum zunächst auf die Länder und Gebiete entlang der Pazifikküste konzentriert, wovon vor allem Japan, Südkorea und Taiwan sowie die ehemaligen britischen Kolonien Hongkong und Singapur profitierten, die sich eng an die Wirtschaft der USA banden. In den 1980er-Jahren entwickelten sich mehrere Staaten in Ost- und Südostasien mit einem raschen Wirtschaftswachstum von Schwellenländern zu Industrieländern: die so genannten „Tigerstaaten“ Hongkong (damals noch eine Kronkolonie des Vereinigten Königreichs), Taiwan, Singapur und Südkorea. 1997/98 fand die rasante Hochkonjunktur in vielen dieser Länder mit der Asienkrise ihr Ende, die – von Thailand ausgehend – vor allem eine Finanz- und Währungskrise war. Seitdem wächst die Wirtschaft dieser Staaten zwar weiter, aber das sehr hohe Wachstum von bis zu zehn Prozent hat sich auf fünf bis sechs Prozent abgeschwächt. Shiraz, with a population of around 1.8 million (2016 census), is Iran's sixth most populous city. It is the capital of the province of Fars, and was also the capital of Iran under the reign of the Zand dynasty. It is located near the ruins of Persepolis and Pasargadae, two of the four capitals of the Achaemenid Empire. Iran's animation industry began by the 1950s, and was followed by the establishment of the influential Institute for the Intellectual Development of Children and Young Adults in January 1965.[478][479] The 1960s was a significant decade for Iranian cinema, with 25 commercial films produced annually on average throughout the early 60s, increasing to 65 by the end of the decade. The majority of the production focused on melodrama and thrillers. With the screening of the films Qeysar and The Cow, directed by Masoud Kimiai and Dariush Mehrjui respectively in 1969, alternative films set out to establish their status in the film industry and Bahram Beyzai's Downpour and Nasser Taghvai's Tranquility in the Presence of Others followed soon. Attempts to organize a film festival, which had begun in 1954 within the framework of the Golrizan Festival, resulted in the festival of Sepas in 1969. The endeavors also resulted in the formation of the Tehran's World Film Festival in 1973.[480] From the 34th to the 20th century BC, northwestern Iran was part of the Kura-Araxes culture, which stretched into the neighboring Caucasus and Anatolia. Since the earliest second millennium BC, Assyrians settled in swaths of western Iran and incorporated the region into their territories.

Irák - Populac

Irák Zeměpis 2

Irák · historická a předpovězená populace (obě pohlaví) pro období 1950-2100 (miliony) Skutečný počet obyvatelstva: Irák od 1. července uvedeného roku. Zdroj: Populační divize OSN [1].Iran ranks seventh among UNESCO's list of countries with the most archaeological ruins and attractions from antiquity.[446] Around 1.5 million people—20 to 25% of the population of Iran—died as a result of the Great Famine of 1870–1871.[151] ASEAN (Savez država jugoistočne Azije) osnovan je 8. augusta 1967. kao politička, ekonomska i kulturna organizacija država jugoistočne Azije: Tajlanda, Indonezije, Malezije, Filipina i Singapura. Njegov cilj je bio i jeste zajednički rad na povećanju ekonomskog rasta, socijalnog napretka i političke stabilnosti u tom području. Osnovan za vrijeme Hladnog rata, savez je od svojih početaka bio kapitalističko-tržišno orijentiran i povezan sa zapadnim industrijskim zemljama i stoji kao konkurencija komunističkoj plansko orjentiranoj Narodnoj Republici Kini. Sultanat Brunej je 1984. pristupio ASEAN-u, te Vijetnam 1995, Mjanmar i Laos 1997. te Kambodža 1999. godine. Papua Nova Gvineja ima status posmatrača. Osnivanjem ASEAN slobodne trgovinske zone (AFTA) 1. januara 2003. godine stvoren je slobodno tržište kojem pripadaju sve članice ASEAN-a. Australija i Novi Zeland su u pregovorima za pristup ovoj zajednici slobodne trgovine. Pojam ASEAN plus three (ASEAN plus tri) označava zajedničku konferenciju država ASEAN-a sa Kinom, Japanom i Južnom Korejom. U Tajlandu je 2000. osnovana Inicijativa Čiang-Mai, koja je utvrdila jačanje saradnje država ASEAN plus tri u finansijskom sektoru.[13]

Iran - Wikipedi

In the biomedical sciences, Iran's Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics has a UNESCO chair in biology.[369] In late 2006, Iranian scientists successfully cloned a sheep by somatic cell nuclear transfer, at the Royan Research Center in Tehran.[370] The administration continues to follow the market reform plans of the previous one, and indicates that it will diversify Iran's oil-reliant economy. Iran has also developed a biotechnology, nanotechnology, and pharmaceutical industry.[330] However, nationalized industries such as the bonyads have often been managed badly, making them ineffective and uncompetitive with years. Currently, the government is trying to privatize these industries, and, despite successes, there are still several problems to be overcome, such as the lagging corruption in the public sector and lack of competitiveness. Iranian scientists outside Iran have also made some major contributions to science. In 1960, Ali Javan co-invented the first gas laser, and fuzzy set theory was introduced by Lotfi A. Zadeh.[379] Iranian cardiologist Tofigh Mussivand invented and developed the first artificial cardiac pump, the precursor of the artificial heart. Furthering research and treatment of diabetes, the HbA1c was discovered by Samuel Rahbar. Iranian physics is especially strong in string theory, with many papers being published in Iran.[380] Iranian American string theorist Kamran Vafa proposed the Vafa–Witten theorem together with Edward Witten. In August 2014, Iranian mathematician Maryam Mirzakhani became the first woman, as well as the first Iranian, to receive the Fields Medal, the highest prize in mathematics.[381] The immediate nationwide uprisings against the new government began with the 1979 Kurdish rebellion and the Khuzestan uprisings, along with the uprisings in Sistan and Baluchestan and other areas. Over the next several years, these uprisings were subdued in a violent manner by the new Islamic government. The new government began purging itself of the non-Islamist political opposition, as well as of those Islamists who were not considered radical enough. Although both nationalists and Marxists had initially joined with Islamists to overthrow the Shah, tens of thousands were executed by the new regime afterwards.[175] Many former ministers and officials in the Shah's government, including former prime minister Amir-Abbas Hoveyda, were executed following Khomeini's order to purge the new government of any remaining officials still loyal to the exiled Shah.

Iran placed its domestically built satellite Omid into orbit on the 30th anniversary of the 1979 Revolution, on 2 February 2009,[375] through its first expendable launch vehicle Safir, becoming the ninth country in the world capable of both producing a satellite and sending it into space from a domestically made launcher.[376] Demographic trends and intensified industrialization have caused electric power demand to grow by 8% per year. The government's goal of 53,000 megawatts of installed capacity by 2010 is to be reached by bringing on line new gas-fired plants, and adding hydropower and nuclear power generation capacity. Iran's first nuclear power plant at Bushire went online in 2011. It is the second nuclear power plant ever built in the Middle East after the Metsamor Nuclear Power Plant in Armenia.[357][358] Although tourism declined significantly during the war with Iraq, it has been subsequently recovered.[338] About 1,659,000 foreign tourists visited Iran in 2004, and 2.3 million in 2009, mostly from Asian countries, including the republics of Central Asia, while about 10% came from the European Union and North America.[339][340][341] Since the removal of some sanctions against Iran in 2015, tourism has re-surged in the country. Over five million tourists visited Iran in the fiscal year of 2014–2015, four percent more than the previous year.[342][343]

Due to the 1973 spike in oil prices, the economy of Iran was flooded with foreign currency, which caused inflation. By 1974, the economy of Iran was experiencing double digit inflation, and despite the many large projects to modernize the country, corruption was rampant and caused large amounts of waste. By 1975 and 1976, an economic recession led to increased unemployment, especially among millions of youths who had migrated to the cities of Iran looking for construction jobs during the boom years of the early 1970s. By the late 1970s, many of these people opposed the Shah's regime and began to organize and join the protests against it.[167] According to The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy, the chronology of the subject and science of philosophy starts with the Indo-Iranians, dating this event to 1500 BC. The Oxford dictionary also states, "Zarathushtra's philosophy entered to influence Western tradition through Judaism, and therefore on Middle Platonism." Seznam států světa podle kontinentů, obsahuje jména států a jejich hlavních měst (v závorce jméno v místním jazyce).. 196 nezávislých států, z toho 192 členských států Organizace spojených národů; Vatikán, jenž není členem OSN, ale OSN ho uznává a má status pozorovatele OSN.; Cookovy ostrovy a Niue, jež jsou samostatnými státy volně přidruženými k Novému. Iran consists of the Iranian Plateau, with the exception of the coasts of the Caspian Sea and Khuzestan. It is one of the world's most mountainous countries, its landscape dominated by rugged mountain ranges that separate various basins or plateaux from one another. The populous western part is the most mountainous, with ranges such as the Caucasus, Zagros, and Alborz, the last containing Mount Damavand, Iran's highest point at 5,610 m (18,406 ft), which is also the highest mountain in Asia west of the Hindu Kush. The IANA time zone identifier for Irak is Asia/Baghdad. Läs om Irak på Wikipedia. Sätt Irak som hemplats. Lägg till i favoritplatser. Time difference from Irak. Los Angeles: −10 timmar. New York: −7 timmar. UTC: −3 t. Irak on the map. Kontinent: Asien; Area: 437 072 km².

Following the fracture of the Mongol Empire in 1256, Hulagu Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan, established the Ilkhanate in Iran. In 1370, yet another conqueror, Timur, followed the example of Hulagu, establishing the Timurid Empire which lasted for another 156 years. In 1387, Timur ordered the complete massacre of Isfahan, reportedly killing 70,000 citizens.[130] The Ilkhans and the Timurids soon came to adopt the ways and customs of the Iranians, surrounding themselves with a culture that was distinctively Iranian.[131] Negujući pozorišnu tradiciju [jidiš] teatra širom istočne Evrope, Izrael je nastavio razvoj jevrejske pozorišne scene. Pozorište Habima u Tel Avivu osnovano je 1918. godine i smatra se za najstariju pozorišnu trupu u zemlji.[94] Iran, Pakistan i Turska osnovali su 1985. Organizaciju za ekonomsku saradnju (ECO), iz koje je trebala također nastati slobodna trgovinska zona. Nakon raspada Sovjetskog saveza, saradnji sa ovim savezom pristupili su i Afganistan, Azerbejdžan, Kazahstan, Kirgistan, Tadžikistan, Turkmenistan i Uzbekistan. Međunarodni značaj ove organizacije je prvenstveno zbog bogatih prirodnih resursa i strateškog položaja kao tranzitni koridor za ove robe prema Evropi i prema Kini. The Supreme Leader appoints the head of the country's judiciary, who in turn appoints the head of the Supreme Court and the chief public prosecutor.[253] There are several types of courts, including public courts that deal with civil and criminal cases, and revolutionary courts which deal with certain categories of offenses, such as crimes against national security. The decisions of the revolutionary courts are final and cannot be appealed.[253] In 2006, about 45% of the government's budget came from oil and natural gas revenues, and 31% came from taxes and fees.[325] As of 2007[update], Iran had earned $70 billion in foreign-exchange reserves, mostly (80%) from crude oil exports.[326] Iranian budget deficits have been a chronic problem, mostly due to large-scale state subsidies, that include foodstuffs and especially gasoline, totaling more than $84 billion in 2008 for the energy sector alone.[327][328] In 2010, the economic reform plan was approved by parliament to cut subsidies gradually and replace them with targeted social assistance. The objective is to move towards free market prices in a five-year period and increase productivity and social justice.[329]

Počet dětí na jednu ženu

Severni deo Azije u potpunosti zauzima Rusija i tamo preovlađuju ledena tundra i četinarske šume. Dalje na jugu nalaze se neplodni pašnjaci ili stepe srednje Azije. Asie ([ázie]) je svou rozlohou 44 603 853 km² největší, s více než 4 miliardami obyvatel nejlidnatější a zhruba od přelomu tisíciletí rovněž nejhustěji osídlený světadíl, který tvoří součást kontinentu zvaného Eurasie, popř. Eurafrasie. Rozkládá se především na východní a severní polokouli. Pokrývá 8,6 % povrchu Země (29,9 % souše) a její obyvatelstvo představuje 60 % světové populace. Během 20. století se počet lidí žijících v Asii téměř zčtyřnásobil. Pojmenování pochází z akkadského slova asu, které znamená východ či rozbřesk. The earliest attested cultures in Iran date back to the Lower Paleolithic. Owing to its geopolitical position, Iran has influenced cultures as far as Greece and Italy to the west, Russia to the north, the Arabian Peninsula to the south, and south and east Asia to the east. The Assembly of Experts is responsible for electing the Supreme Leader, and has the power to dismiss him on the basis of qualifications and popular esteem.[252] To date, the Assembly of Experts has not challenged any of the Supreme Leader's decisions, nor has it attempted to dismiss him.[253] The previous head of the judicial system, Sadeq Larijani, appointed by the Supreme Leader, said that it is illegal for the Assembly of Experts to supervise the Supreme Leader.[254] Due to Khamenei's very longtime unchallenged rule, many believe the Assembly of Experts has become a ceremonial body without any real power.[255][256][257][258] There have been instances when the current Supreme Leader publicly criticized members of the Assembly of Experts, resulting in their arrest and dismissal. For example, Khamenei publicly called then-member of the Assembly of Experts Ahmad Azari Qomi a traitor, resulting in Qomi's arrest and eventual dismissal from the Assembly of Experts. Another instance is when Khamenei indirectly called Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani a traitor for a statement he made, causing Rafsanjani to retract it.[259]

Turizam, naručito verski, važna je privredna grana Izraela. Zbog svog geografskog položaja, izraelske plaže, arheološka i istorijska mesta privlače milione turista godišnje. Nerešena politička i bezbednosna pitanja u državi uzela su svoj danak, ali i pored toga broj posetilaca je svake godine sve veći.[63] Izrael je 2010. posetilo oko 3,45 miliona turista.[64] Većinu turista privlače mnogobrojni muzeji koji posmatrano u odnosu na broj stanovnika ima više nego u bilo kojoj drugoj državi sveta.[65] Mit Jesus von Nazaret (vgl. Jesus Christus) soll etwa 7 bis 4 v. Chr. in Palästina der selbst in der Tradition der jüdischen Religion stehende Begründer des Christentums geboren worden sein. Nach seinem Tod fand die Lehre seiner Jünger vorerst im Nahen Osten und, innerhalb des Römischen Reiches, in Südeuropa Verbreitung. In Asien entwickelten sich verschiedene Traditionen des christlichen Orients, von denen einige, wie etwa der Nestorianismus, bis weit nach Zentralasien und China vordrangen. Ausgehend vom byzantinischen Reich verbreiteten sich die altorientalischen Kirchen in Vorderasien und auch Indien, sowie die heute noch in weiten Teilen Nordasiens vorherrschenden orthodoxen Kirchen.

The earliest recorded representations of dancing figures within Iran were found in prehistoric sites such as Tepe Sialk and Tepe Mūsīān.[470] The oldest Iranian initiation of theater and the phenomena of acting can be traced in the ancient epic ceremonial theaters such as Sug-e Siāvuš ("mourning of Siāvaš"), as well as dances and theater narrations of Iranian mythological tales reported by Herodotus and Xenophon. Lunar Islamic public holidays include Tasua (Muharram 9; 30 September), Ashura (Muharram 10; 1 October), Arba'een (Safar 20; 10 November), the death of Muhammad (Safar 28; 17 November), the death of Ali al-Ridha (Safar 29 or 30; 18 November), the birthday of Muhammad (Rabi-al-Awwal 17; 6 December), the death of Fatimah (Jumada-al-Thani 3; 2 March), the birthday of Ali (Rajab 13; 10 April), Muhammad's first revelation (Rajab 27; 24 April), the birthday of Muhammad al-Mahdi (Sha'ban 15; 12 May), the death of Ali (Ramadan 21; 16 June), Eid al-Fitr (Shawwal 1–2; 26–27 June), the death of Ja'far al-Sadiq (Shawwal 25; 20 July), Eid al-Qurban (Zulhijja 10; 1 September), and Eid al-Qadir (Zulhijja 18; 9 September).[515]

Saudi Arabien Karte, Landkarte Saudi Arabien

On 4 November 1979, a group of Muslim students seized the United States Embassy and took the embassy with 52 personnel and citizens hostage,[176] after the United States refused to extradite Mohammad Reza Pahlavi to Iran, where his execution was all but assured. Attempts by the Jimmy Carter administration to negotiate for the release of the hostages, and a failed rescue attempt, helped force Carter out of office and brought Ronald Reagan to power. On Jimmy Carter's final day in office, the last hostages were finally set free as a result of the Algiers Accords. Mohammad Reza Pahlavi left the United States for Egypt, where he died of complications from cancer only months later, on 27 July 1980. Ani hranici s Austrálií a Oceánií není snadné stanovit. Australská pevnina se sice asijské nedotýká, ale mezi nimi leží velké množství ostrovů, u nichž není vždy jasné, ke kterému světadílu je přiřadit. Ostrov Nová Guinea se obvykle řadí k Oceánii, což znamená, že území Indonésie zasahuje do obou světadílů. Zoogeografové pracují s tzv. Wallaceovou linií, která odděluje ekosystémy považované za čistě asijské od smíšených asijsko-australských. Šarenilo izraelske kulture potiče iz raznolikosti stanovništva. Jevreji su iz celog sveta sa sobom doneli svoje kulturne i verse tradicije, stvarajući mešavinu jevrejskih običaja i verovanja.[86] Izrael je jedina zemlja u svetu u kojoj se dešavanja prilagođavaju hebrejskom kalendaru. Godišnji odmori i školski raspusti određeni su jevrejskim praznicima, a zvanični dan za odmor je subota, poznata kao jevrejski Sabat. Izraelska araa manjina je takođe ostavila trag u izraelskoj kulturi, u oblastima muzike, arhitekture i kuhinje.[87] In 2009, a SUSE Linux-based HPC system made by the Aerospace Research Institute of Iran (ARI) was launched with 32 cores, and now runs 96 cores. Its performance was pegged at 192 GFLOPS.[367] The Iranian humanoid robot Sorena 2, which was designed by engineers at the University of Tehran, was unveiled in 2010. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) has placed the name of Surena among the five prominent robots of the world after analyzing its performance.[368]

Azija - Wikipedi

Izrael je takođe bio dom poznatih palestinskih književnika. Emile Habibi je sa romanom The Secret Life of Saeed the Pessoptimist osvojio Izraelsku nagradu za arau književnost. Mahmoud Darwish koga još nazivaju i palestinskim nacionalnim pesnikom,[92] rođen je na severu Izraela, ali je živeo i iznanstvu nakon pristupa Palestinskoj oslobodilačkoj organizaciji. Azija je najveći i najnaseljeniji kontinent.[3] Ona zauzima 30% Zemljine površine i gotovo se u potpunosti nalazi na severnoj hemisferi, tek se pojedina Indonezijska ostrva nalaze ispod ekvatora. Sastoji se od 49 zemalja i izlazi na tri okeana: Indijski okean na jugu, Severni ledeni okean na severu i Tihi okean na istoku.[4] Azija je, u proseku, najviši kontinent na svetu (950m). Prema mišljenju geologa, Azija je najstariji kontinent.[5] Having 11 climates out of the world's 13, Iran's climate is diverse,[200] ranging from arid and semi-arid, to subtropical along the Caspian coast and the northern forests.[201] On the northern edge of the country (the Caspian coastal plain), temperatures rarely fall below freezing and the area remains humid for the rest of the year. Summer temperatures rarely exceed 29 °C (84.2 °F).[202][203] Annual precipitation is 680 mm (26.8 in) in the eastern part of the plain and more than 1,700 mm (66.9 in) in the western part. Gary Lewis, the United Nations Resident Coordinator for Iran, has said that "Water scarcity poses the most severe human security challenge in Iran today".[204] Iranian pop music has its origins in the Qajar era.[465] It was significantly developed since the 1950s, using indigenous instruments and forms accompanied by electric guitar and other imported characteristics. The emergence of genres such as rock in the 1960s and hip hop in the 2000s also resulted in major movements and influences in Iranian music.[466][467][468][469]

Předpokládaný věk dožití

Država Izrael je proglašena 14. maja 1948. U nadi da će uništiti novu jevrejsku državu, armije pet araih nacija su se umešale u rat između jevrejskih i araih snaga u bivšoj Palestini (vidi: Deklaracija o proglašenju Države Izrael, Arao-izraelski rat, 1948.). Izrael je osvojio dodatnih 26% teritorije Palestine zapadno od reke Jordan i pridružio je novoj državi. Jordan je osvojio Zapadnu obalu (uključujući Istočni Jerusalim), i anektirao je 1948. godine, ali su ovu aneksiju priznali samo Ujedinjeno Kraljevstvo i Pakistan. Pojas Gaze i Sinajsku pustinju je osvojio Egipat. Izrael (hebr. ישראל — Jisrael; arap. إسرائيل ‎ — Israil), ili zvanično Država Izrael (hebr. מדינת ישראל; arap. دولة إسرائيل ‎) je bliskoistočna i parlamentarna republika na istočnoj obali Sredozemnog mora.Graniči se sa Libanom na severu, Sirijom na severoistoku, Jordanom na istoku i Egiptom na jugozapadu. Izrael je jedina država u svetu u kojoj.

The IANA time zone identifier for Irak is Asia/Baghdad. Lies mehr zu Irak in Wikipedia. Irak als Standard setzen. Zu Favoriten hinzufügen. Time difference from Irak. Los Angeles: −10 Stunden. New York City: −7 Stunden. UTC: Irak on the map. Kontinent: Asien; Gebiet: 437.072 km². Historical and cultural usage of the word Iran is not restricted to the modern state proper.[57][58][59] "Greater Iran" (Irānzamīn or Irān e Bozorg)[60] refers to territories of the Iranian cultural and linguistic zones. In addition to modern Iran, it includes portions of the Caucasus, Anatolia, Mesopotamia, Afghanistan, and Central Asia.[61] The American English pronunciation /aɪˈræn/ eye-RAN may be heard in U.S. media. Max Fisher in The Washington Post[65] prescribed /iːˈrɑːn/ for Iran, while proscribing /aɪˈræn/. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, in the dictionary's 2014 Usage Ballot, addressed the topic of the pronunciations of Iran and Iraq.[66] According to this survey, the pronunciations /ɪˈrɑːn/ and /ɪˈræn/ were deemed almost equally acceptable, while /ɪˈrɑːn/ was preferred by most panelists participating in the ballot. With regard to the /aɪˈræn/ pronunciation, more than 70% of the panelists deemed it unacceptable. Among the reasons given by those panelists were that /aɪˈræn/ has "hawkish connotations" and sounds "angrier", "xenophobic", "ignorant", and "not ... cosmopolitan". The /aɪˈræn/ pronunciation remains standard and acceptable, reflected in the entry for Iran in the American Heritage Dictionary itself, as well as in each of the other major dictionaries of American English. Malarija u južnoj i jugoistočnoj Aziji je vrlo rasprostranjena. Protiv nje, ni danas nema nijednog poznatog načina cijepljenja. Njeno širenje moguće je usporiti jedino zaštitom od insektata pomoću spreja i sličnih insekticida, međutim za većinu pogođenog stanovništva takva sredstva su nedostupna zbog visokih cijena.

Zur regionalen Gliederung Asiens gibt es verschiedene Ansätze. Die folgende Unterteilung in Regionen wird neben anderen von der UN-Statistikbehörde UNSD verwendet. Diese Einteilung Asiens in Regionen durch die Vereinten Nationen geschieht ausschließlich aus statistischen Gründen und impliziert keine Annahme über politische oder sonstige Zugehörigkeiten der Länder und Gebiete.[2] Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century,[31] though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses.[32][33] The Persian Constitutional Revolution in the early 20th century created a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocratic rule under Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and growing Western political influence.[34] A far-reaching series of reforms known as the White Revolution was launched by the Shah in 1963, prompting industrial growth, land reforms, and increased women's rights.[35] Nevertheless, widespread dissatisfaction and unrest against the monarchy persisted, leading to the Iranian Revolution, which established the current Islamic Republic.[36] For most of the 1980s, Iran fought a war with Iraq that resulted in millions of casualties and economic devastation for both sides.

Seznam států světa podle kontinentů - Wikipedi

An der Wende vom sechsten zum fünften vorchristlichen Jahrhundert lebte in Nordindien Siddhartha Gautama, der nach der Überlieferung im Alter von 35 Jahren Erleuchtung erlangte und somit zum Buddha („Erwachter“, „Erleuchteter“) wurde. Aus der vedischen Tradition kommend und diese hinter sich lassend, wurde er zum Begründer des Buddhismus. Etwa zeitgleich begründete Mahavira ebenfalls in Indien die Lehre des Jainismus. Površina Izraela, neračunajući teritorije koje je okupirao tokom 1967. godine nakon Šestodnevnog rata, je oko 20.770 km² (2% čini more).[25] Pod izraelskom vlašću je i Istočni Jerusalim i Golanska visoravan, što čini ukupno 22.072 km²,[26] a ako se tome pridoda i okupirani region sa sve Palestinskom teritorijom i Zapadnom obalom, ukupna površina je 27.779 km².[27] Weitere wichtige asiatische Organisationen sind: die Organisation der Islamischen Konferenz, die Asiatische Entwicklungsbank (Asia Development Bank, ADB) und die Asiatische Menschenrechtskommission. On the eve of the last Wednesday of the preceding year, as a prelude to Nowruz,[490] the ancient festival of Čāršanbe Suri celebrates Ātar ("fire") by performing rituals such as jumping over bonfires and lighting off firecrackers and fireworks.[491][492] The Nowruz celebrations last by the end of the 13th day of the Iranian year (Farvardin 13, usually coincided with 1 or 2 April), celebrating the festival of Sizdebedar, during which the people traditionally go outdoors to picnic.[493]

Fasolia- Böngryta - ZEINAS KITCHEN

Asien - Wikipedi

Hercynidy jsou horská pásma, jejichž vývoj začal během mladších prvohor, tedy v době, kdy na území dnešní Evropy probíhalo hercynské vrásnění. Jejich zvedání podél starých zlomů mnohdy pokračovalo i později. The 10th century saw a mass migration of Turkic tribes from Central Asia into the Iranian Plateau.[126] Turkic tribesmen were first used in the Abbasid army as mamluks (slave-warriors), replacing Iranian and Arab elements within the army.[114] As a result, the Mamluks gained a significant political power. In 999, large portions of Iran came briefly under the rule of the Ghaznavids, whose rulers were of mamluk Turkic origin, and longer subsequently under the Seljuk and Khwarezmian empires. These dynasties had been Persianized, and had adopted Persian models of administration and rulership.[126] The Seljuks subsequently gave rise to the Sultanate of Rum in Anatolia, while taking their thoroughly Persianized identity with them.[127][128] The result of the adoption and patronage of Iranian culture by Turkish rulers was the development of a distinct Turko-Persian tradition. An der Wende vom 15. zum 16. Jahrhundert stiftete Guru Nanak im Punjab, im Nordwesten Indiens, den Sikhismus. Oft als Abspaltung oder Reformbewegung des Hinduismus oder als Synkretismus aus Hinduismus und Islam bezeichnet, beschreiben Sikhs ihren Glauben als religionsübergreifenden Lebensweg, der sich nicht an dogmatischen Grenzen, sondern an gelebter Weisheit orientiert.

Iran is one of the countries with the worst freedom of the press situation, ranking 164th out of 180 countries on the Press Freedom Index (as of 2018).[543] The Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance is Iran's main government department responsible for the cultural policy, including activities regarding communications and information.[544] Iran hosts one of the largest refugee populations in the world, with more than one million refugees, mostly from Afghanistan and Iraq.[390] Since 2006, Iranian officials have been working with the UNHCR and Afghan officials for their repatriation.[391] According to estimates, about five million Iranian citizens have emigrated to other countries, mostly since the 1979 Revolution.[392][393] Iran has increased its publication output nearly tenfold from 1996 through 2004, and has been ranked first in terms of output growth rate, followed by China.[365] According to a study by SCImago in 2012, Iran would rank fourth in the world in terms of research output by 2018, if the current trend persists.[366] In 2020 Fatih Birol the head of the International Energy Agency said that fossil fuel subsidies should be redirected, for example to the health system.[359]

Izrael — Vikipedija, slobodna enciklopedij

  1. Zdravlje i očekivana starost su u korelaciji sa dobrobiti nacije i njenih stanovnika. Viši životni standardi po pravilu znače i više resursa za vlastito kao i za zdravlje naroda. Stanovnici Makaoa, Singapura, Hong Konga i Japana imaju najduži prosječni životni vijek na nivou svih Azijata. Stanovnici Saudijske Arabije, Araih Emirata, Bruneja, Kine, Malezije, Tajlanda, Filipina i Indonezije po dužini očekivanog prosječnog životnog vijeka nalaze se oko svjetskog prosjeka. Najkraći očekivani životni vijek u Aziji imaju stanovnici Indije, Bangladeša, Mjanmara, Kambodže, Laosa, Butana i Afganistana.[10]
  2. Iran is divided into five regions with thirty-one provinces (ostān),[212] each governed by an appointed governor (ostāndār). The provinces are divided into counties (šahrestān), and subdivided into districts (baxš) and sub-districts (dehestān).
  3. Zadržavanje izraelskog stanovništva nakon Drugog svetskog rata je u poređenju sa pridošlicama na velikom nivou.[76] Emigranti iz Izraela najčešće odlaze u SAD i Kanadu. U demografskom smislu broj emigranata opisan je kao skroman,[77] ali ga često državni zvaničnici navode kao glavnu pretnju za budućnost Izraela.[78][79]

The Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran is responsible for developing and maintaining the Iranian rial, which serves as the country's currency. The government does not recognize trade unions other than the Islamic labour councils, which are subject to the approval of employers and the security services.[322] The minimum wage in June 2013 was 487 million rials a month ($134).[323] Unemployment has remained above 10% since 1997, and the unemployment rate for women is almost double that of the men.[323] Prema podjeli na sjevernu Aziju (Rusiju), zapadnu Aziju (Z), centralnu Aziju (C), južnu Aziju (J), jugoistočnu Aziju (JI) i istočnu Aziju (I), stanje je sljedeće: Izraelske odbrambene snage sastoje se od izraelske kopnene vojske, izraelskih vazdušnih snaga i izraelske ratne mornarice. Osnovale su je tokom Arao-izraelskog rata 1948. godine konsolidovane paravojne organizacije (uglavnom Hagana), što je prethodilo izraelskoj nezavisnosti.[55] Odbrambene snage se oslanjaju i na resorse Vojne obaveštajne direkije (Aman), koja sarađuje sa Mosadom i Šin betom (Šabakom).[56] Izrealski vojnici učestvovali su u nekoliko ratova i sukoba tokom kratkotrajen izraelske istorije, što ih svrstava u red oružanih snaga sa najvećim borbenim iskustvom.[57][58]

1951–1978: Mosaddegh, Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi

The Russo-Iranian wars of 1804–1813 and 1826–1828 resulted in large irrevocable territorial losses for Iran in the Caucasus, comprising all of Transcaucasia and Dagestan, which made part of the very concept of Iran for centuries,[32] and thus substantial gains for the neighboring Russian Empire. Vzhledem k pozemnímu spojení Asie s Evropou i Afrikou se někdy rozcházejí názory na to, kudy vést hranici mezi těmito kontinenty. Rozšířená a na českých školách vyučovaná verze hranice mezi Evropou a Asií vede z Bajdarackého zálivu po východním úpatí Uralu (Ural leží celý v Evropě), dále po řece Embě, po pobřeží Kaspického moře a Kumomanyčskou sníženinou na sever od Kavkazu (Kavkaz leží už celý v Asii) do Azovského moře. Dale k jihozápadu oba světadíly odděluje Černé moře, průliv Bospor, Marmarské moře a průliv Dardanely. Do obou světadílů zasahuje území Ruska, Kazachstánu a Turecka. In Asien leben rund vier Milliarden Menschen, was etwa 60 % der Erdbevölkerung entspricht. Sowohl in Indien als auch in der Volksrepublik China leben je über eine Milliarde Menschen. Während vor allem Russland und die Mongolei sehr dünn besiedelt sind, kämpfen andere Länder mit den Auswirkungen ihrer Bevölkerungsexplosion. At least 74 species of the Iranian wildlife are on the red list of the International Union for Conservation of Nature, a sign of serious threats against the country's biodiversity. The Iranian Parliament has been showing disregard for wildlife by passing laws and regulations such as the act that lets the Ministry of Industries and Mines exploit mines without the involvement of the Department of Environment, and by approving large national development projects without demanding comprehensive study of their impact on wildlife habitats.[211] Tehran, with a population of around 8.8 million (2016 census), is the capital and largest city of Iran. It is an economical and cultural center, and is the hub of the country's communication and transport network.

Asie - Wikipedi

  1. Asien, Teil von Eurasien, ist mit rund 44,6 Millionen Quadratkilometern, etwa einem Drittel der gesamten Landmasse, der flächenmäßig größte Erdteil. Mit über vier Milliarden Menschen, mehr als der Hälfte der Weltbevölkerung, ist dieser Erdteil auch der einwohnerstärkste. Es gibt 47 international anerkannte Staaten Asiens.
  2. In 550 BC, Cyrus the Great, the son of Mandane and Cambyses I, took over the Median Empire, and founded the Achaemenid Empire by unifying other city-states. The conquest of Media was a result of what is called the Persian Revolt. The brouhaha was initially triggered by the actions of the Median ruler Astyages, and was quickly spread to other provinces, as they allied with the Persians. Later conquests under Cyrus and his successors expanded the empire to include Lydia, Babylon, Egypt, parts of the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper, as well as the lands to the west of the Indus and Oxus rivers.
  3. Being a mountainous country, Iran is a venue for skiing, snowboarding, hiking, rock climbing,[532] and mountain climbing.[533][534] It is home to several ski resorts, the most famous being Tochal, Dizin, and Shemshak, all within one to three hours traveling from the capital city Tehran.[535] The resort of Tochal, located in the Alborz mountain rage, is the world's fifth-highest ski resort (3,730 m or 12,238 ft at its highest station).
  4. Der Irak gehört zum Orient.Zum Kulturraum des Orients werden gewöhnlich Länder Nordafrikas und Südwestasiens gezählt. Sie liegen überwiegend im Bereich des subtropischen Trockengürtels der Alten Welt. Im Nordosten befindet sich eine etwa 3000 m hohe Bergkette aus den Ausläufern des Taurusgebirges und des Zagros'. Diese Kette gehört zum alpinen Gebirgszug, der sich vom.
  5. Čínská platforma je rozdělena na vystupující masívy, mezi nimiž leží mladší jednotky. Obsahuje prekambrické štíty:
  6. The northern part of Iran is covered by the lush lowland Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests, located near the southern shores of the Caspian Sea. The eastern part consists mostly of desert basins, such as the Kavir Desert, which is the country's largest desert, and the Lut Desert, as well as some salt lakes.
  7. Iran's oldest literary tradition is that of Avestan, the Old Iranian sacred language of the Avesta, which consists of the legendary and religious texts of Zoroastrianism and the ancient Iranian religion, with its earliest records dating back to the pre-Achaemenid times.[451]

Geografija Iraka - Wikipedi

Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century AD, and the subsequent Islamization of Iran led to the decline of the once dominant Zoroastrian religion. Iran's major contributions to art, philosophy, and science spread throughout the Muslim world and beyond during the Islamic Golden Age. Over the next two centuries, a series of native Muslim dynasties emerged before the Seljuq Turks and the Ilkhanate Mongols conquered the region. The rise of the native Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity,[12] with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history.[13][30] Christianity, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, and the Sunni branch of Islam are officially recognized by the government, and have reserved seats in the Iranian Parliament.[152] But the Bahá'í Faith, which is said to be the largest non-Muslim religious minority in Iran[419] is not officially recognized, and has been persecuted during its existence in Iran since the 19th century, while according to statistics center of Iran, Bahais constitute only about 0.37% of Iran, namely about 25.000 to 40.000 people, and it is also said that there does seem to be a kind of exaggeration in declaration of their population by the order of Bahais heads.[420][421] Since the 1979 Revolution, the persecution of Bahais has increased with executions and denial of civil rights, especially the denial of access to higher education and employment.[422][423][424] Asien, Teil von Eurasien, ist mit rund 44,6 Millionen Quadratkilometern, etwa einem Drittel der gesamten Landmasse, der flächenmäßig größte Erdteil.Mit über vier Milliarden Menschen, mehr als der Hälfte der Weltbevölkerung, ist dieser Erdteil auch der einwohnerstärkste.Es gibt 47 international anerkannte Staaten Asiens..

Since the 1979 Islamic Revolution

AIDS ist weit verbreitet. Besonders in Russland, Indien, Nepal, Myanmar, Thailand, Kambodscha, Vietnam und Malaysia tritt das HI-Virus vermehrt auf. Dagegen sind in Japan, der Mongolei, Sri Lanka, Bangladesch, Bhutan, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan und in Vorderasien nur relativ wenige Menschen an AIDS erkrankt. Diese Angaben sind aber mit Vorsicht zu betrachten, da die HIV-Infektionsrate als Durchschnittswert auf das ganze Land bezogen ist, aber vor allem in den Großstädten gehäuft auftritt. Azija je kontinent sa najrazličitijom vegetacijom koja se kreće od stalno zaleđene zemlje (permafrosta) u Sibiru do džungli u jugoistočnoj Aziji. Pored ekstremnih klimatskih uslova u tundrama, pustinjama i troim kišnim šumama, u njoj se nalaze i sve ostale poznate vegetacijske zone. Druga specifičnost Azije je da se u njoj nalazi najveći broj međukontinentalnih država na svijetu, bilo da se radi o azijskom dijelu tih država ili teritorijama azijskih država na drugim kontinentima. U te države spadaju Rusija, Kazahstan, Indonezija, Japan, Egipat, Grčka i Turska. Iranian mythology consists of ancient Iranian folklore and stories, all involving extraordinary beings, reflecting attitudes towards the confrontation of good and evil, actions of the gods, and the exploits of heroes and fabulous creatures.

From the late 10th to the late seventh century BC, the Iranian peoples, together with the "pre-Iranian" kingdoms, fell under the domination of the Assyrian Empire, based in northern Mesopotamia.[85] Under king Cyaxares, the Medes and Persians entered into an alliance with Babylonian ruler Nabopolassar, as well as the fellow Iranian Scythians and Cimmerians, and together they attacked the Assyrian Empire. The civil war ravaged the Assyrian Empire between 616 and 605 BC, thus freeing their respective peoples from three centuries of Assyrian rule.[85] The unification of the Median tribes under king Deioces in 728 BC led to the foundation of the Median Empire which, by 612 BC, controlled almost the entire territory of present-day Iran and eastern Anatolia.[86] This marked the end of the Kingdom of Urartu as well, which was subsequently conquered and dissolved.[87][88] The officially stated goal of the government of Iran is to establish a new world order based on world peace, global collective security, and justice.[281][282] Since the time of the 1979 Revolution, Iran's foreign relations have often been portrayed as being based on two strategic principles; eliminating outside influences in the region, and pursuing extensive diplomatic contacts with developing and non-aligned countries.[283] Kontinent: Asie: Rozloha: 438 317 km 2: Počet obyvatel: 34 035 000 (2012) Vznik státu: 3. 10. 1932: Nejvyšší hory: Kúhe Hádží Ebráhím 3609 m: Nejdelší řeky: Eufrat 2720 km (v zemi 935 km), Tigris 1950 km (v zemi 1600 km) Státní zřízení: republika s více stranami a jednokomorovým parlamentem: Největší měst Hassan Rouhani was elected as the president on 15 June 2013, defeating Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf and four other candidates.[188][189] The electoral victory of Rouhani relatively improved the relations of Iran with other countries.[190]

Tiden i Irak nu - Time Zon

Administrative divisions

Azija je najveći kontinent na Zemlji. Sa oko 44,614 miliona kvadratnih kilometara površine (bez Rusije 31,7 milion km 2) obuhvata oko jedne trećine ukupne površine kopna.Zajedno sa Evropom, Azija se smatra i dijelom nadkontinenta zvanog Evroazija.Kontinentalna masa Azije nalazi se u potpunosti na istočnoj hemisferi i sjeverno od ekvatora sa izuzetkom Čukotskog poluostrva u istočnom. The President is responsible for the implementation of the constitution, and for the exercise of executive powers in implementing the decrees and general policies as outlined by the Supreme Leader, except for matters directly related to the Supreme Leader, who has the final say in all matters.[230] Unlike the executive in other countries, the President of Iran does not have full control over anything, as these are ultimately under the control of the Supreme Leader.[218] Chapter IX of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran sets forth the qualifications for presidential candidates. The procedures for presidential election and all other elections in Iran are outlined by the Supreme Leader.[241][269] The President functions as the executive of affairs such as signing treaties and other international agreements, and administering national planning, budget, and state employment affairs, all as approved by the Supreme Leader.[233][234][269][235][236][237][238][239][270] Sida je također vrlo rasprostranjena. Naročito velik broj zaraženih HIV-virusom živi u Rusiji, Indiji, Nepalu, Mjanmaru, Tajlandu, Kambodži, Vijetnamu i Maleziji. Nasuprot njih, u Japanu, Mongoliji, Šri Lanki, Bangladešu, Butanu, Afganistanu, Turkmenistanu, Saudijskoj Arabiji, Ujedinjenim Araim Emiratima i državama Bliskog Istoka ima relativno mali broj ljudi oboljelih od side. Međutim, ove podatke treba uzeti sa rezervom, jer je stopa zaraženosti HIV-om izračunata kao prosjek za cijelu državu, ali u velikim gradovima ovaj broj može biti znatno viši.

Världsdelar och kontinenter - Wikipedi

Weite Teile Asiens sind nach wie vor landwirtschaftlich geprägt, wobei insbesondere Reisanbau und Fischerei von Bedeutung sind. Before the 1979 Revolution, the Iranian national stage had become a famous performing scene for known international artists and troupes,[472] with the Roudaki Hall of Tehran constructed to function as the national stage for opera and ballet. Opened on 26 October 1967, the hall is home to the Tehran Symphony Orchestra, the Tehran Opera Orchestra, and the Iranian National Ballet Company, and was officially renamed Vahdat Hall after the 1979 Revolution. In 1795, following the disobedience of the Georgian subjects and their alliance with the Russians, the Qajars captured Tbilisi by the Battle of Krtsanisi, and drove the Russians out of the entire Caucasus, reestablishing the Iranian suzerainty over the region. Temperaturna kolebanja su u Izraelu česta, naročito tokom zime. U višim planinskim predelima duvaju jaki vetrovi, temperature su niže, a česte su i snežne padavine. Snega ima i u Jerusalimu,[30] dok u primorskim gradovima Tel Avivu i Haifi preovlađuje mediteranska klima sa dugim i toplim letom i kratkom, hladnom i kišovitom zimom. U okolini grada Biršebe i severa pustinje Negev dominira semiaridna klima sa vrućim letima i hladnim zimama, ali sa manjom količinom padavina nego na Mediteranu. Južni delovi Negeva i region oko Arave su pod uticajem pustinjske klime sa izuzetno toplim i suvim letima i prohladnim zimama sa malo taloga. Najviša temperatura u Aziji izmerena je 1942. godine kada je živa na Celzijusovoj skali dostigla 53, 7 °C u kibucu Tirat Cvi u severnom delu doline reke Jordan.[31] Uvidevši značaj velikog broja sunčanih dana, Izraelci koriste sunčevu energiju kao vid uštede tradicionalnih izvora energije. Upotreba solarne energije po glavi stanovnika je na visokom nivou. Praktično svaka kuća zagreva vodu pomoću solarnih ploča.[traži se izvor] Od maja do septembra kiše gotovo da nema.[32][33]

Officially, Russia itself doesn't define itself as either a European or an Asian country. Unofficially, if we asked around (both in Russia and abroad), most people would probably say that Russia is in Europe. Even, with the loss of the Baltic Republics (Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania), Russia still has a territory in central Europe: Kaliningrad The cultural revival that began in the Abbasid period led to a resurfacing of the Iranian national identity; thus, the attempts of Arabization never succeeded in Iran. The Shu'ubiyya movement became a catalyst for Iranians to regain independence in their relations with the Arab invaders.[125] The most notable effect of this movement was the continuation of the Persian language attested to the works of the epic poet Ferdowsi, now considered the most prominent figure in Iranian literature. Iran's official calendar is the Solar Hejri calendar, beginning at the vernal equinox in the Northern Hemisphere, which was first enacted by the Iranian Parliament on 31 March 1925.[514] Each of the 12 months of the Solar Hejri calendar correspond with a zodiac sign, and the length of each year is absolutely solar.[514] The months are named after the ancient Iranian months,[514] namely Farvardin (Fravaši), Ordibehešt (Aša Vahišta), Xordād (Haurvatāt), Tir (Tištrya), Amordād (Amərətāt), Šahrivar (Xšaθra Vairya), Mehr (Miθra), Ābān (Āpō), Āzar (Ātar), Dey (Daθuš), Bahman (Vohu Manah), and Esfand (Spəntā Ārmaiti). Als zwei weitere Staaten wurden seit 2008 Abchasien und Südossetien von Russland und vier nichtasiatischen Staaten anerkannt, von den übrigen Staaten jedoch weiterhin als Teil Georgiens betrachtet. Die türkisch besetzte Türkische Republik Nordzypern ist nur von der Türkei anerkannt. Das mit armenischer Hilfe von Aserbaidschan abgespaltene Bergkarabach wird zwar selbst von Armenien nicht anerkannt, jedoch von Abchasien und Südossetien. Auch die Autonome Region Kurdistan im Nordirak strebte ursprünglich die Unabhängigkeit an, hat sich jedoch in einem Grundlagenvertrag mit der Zentralregierung in Bagdad auf Autonomie innerhalb des Irak verständigt. Der aus den Palästinensischen Autonomiegebieten hervorgegangene Staat Palästina ist zwar Beobachterstaat in der UNO, jedoch kein UNO-Mitgliedsstaat. Bereits 1988 war die palästinensische Staatsgründung von über 100 Staaten (darunter DDR und Vatikan) anerkannt worden, zu denen Palästina diplomatische Beziehungen unterhält. International nicht anerkannt ist der Islamische Staat, der sich spätestens seit 2014 über weite Teile Iraks und Syriens erstreckt und die im 20. Jahrhundert entstandene staatliche Gliederung Westasiens in Frage stellt.

Ash reshte- Persisk nudelsoppa - ZEINAS KITCHEN

Velikim delom jugozapadne Azije, koji se naziva Bliski istok, takođe preovladava pustinja koja je često peskovita i čija je klima žarka i sušna. Južno od najvišeg planinskog venca na svetu Himalaja u zemljama južne Azije vlada monsunska klima. Duga razdoblja žarkog, suvog vremena smenjuju obilne kiše. Idući ka jugoistoku, Malajsko poluostrvo pruža se prema brojnim ostrvima Indonezije gde se nalaze velike oblasti gustih, troih prašuma. U Indiji je od dvadesetog veka pre nove ere postojala jaka država, sa najvišim stepenom razvitka tokom petog veka pre nove ere.

Verdensdel - Wikipedia, den frie encyklopæd

  1. Im 20. Jahrhundert hatten so unterschiedliche Persönlichkeiten wie der Inder Mahatma Gandhi, mit seiner aus der indischen Philosophie abgeleiteten Lehre der Gewaltlosigkeit (Ahimsa), und der chinesische Revolutionär Mao Zedong, mit seinem auf dem Kommunismus basierenden Maoismus, entscheidenden Einfluss auf die Politik der beiden nach ihrer Bevölkerungszahl größten Länder der Erde und darüber hinaus.
  2. Die Religion in Japan war schon früh durch den Synkretismus verschiedener Glaubenssysteme gekennzeichnet. Bis heute sind Shintō und Buddhismus (Zen, Amidismus), der Japan im 5. oder 6. Jahrhundert erreichte, die am weitesten verbreiteten Religionen. Inhalte der chinesischen Lehren Daoismus und Konfuzianismus wurden von Shintō und Buddhismus aufgenommen und integriert. Seit dem Ende des Zweiten Weltkriegs herrscht eine besonders hohe religiöse Toleranz in Japan, was zu einem starken Anwachsen neureligiöser Gruppen geführt hat.
  3. The current Prime Minister of Iraq is Haider al-Abadi, who holds most of the executive authority and appoints the Council of Ministers, which acts as a cabinet and/or government. Federal Government. The federal government of Iraq is defined under the current Constitution as an Islamic, democratic, federal parliamentary republic

The country's second most populous city, Mashhad, has a population of around 3.3 million (2016 census), and is capital of the province of Razavi Khorasan. Being the site of the Imam Reza Shrine, it is a holy city in Shia Islam. About 15 to 20 million pilgrims visit the shrine every year.[216][217] Iran received access to the Internet in 1993. According to Internet World Stats, as of 2017[update], around 69.1% of the population of Iran are Internet users.[549] Iran ranks 17th among countries by number of Internet users. According to the statistics provided by the web information company of Alexa, Google Search is Iran's most widely used search engine and Instagram is the most popular online social networking service.[550] Direct access to many worldwide mainstream websites has been blocked in Iran, including Facebook, which has been blocked since 2009 due to the organization of anti-governmental protests on the website.[551] However, as of 2017[update], Facebook has around 40 million subscribers based in Iran (48.8% of the population) who use virtual private networks and proxy servers to access the website.[549] Some of the officials themselves have verified accounts on the social networking websites that are blocked by the authorities, including Facebook and Twitter.[552] About 90% of Iran's e-commerce takes place on the Iranian online store of Digikala, which has around 750,000 visitors per day and more than 2.3 million subscribers and is the most visited online store in the Middle East.[553][550] Azija je najveći kontinent na svetu, a najveći deo Azije se nalazi na severnoj hemisferi. Deli više hiljada kilometara kopnene granice sa Evropom, i stoga se ova dva kontinenta često nazivaju zajedničkim imenom Evroazija. Po nekim mišljenjima, teoretska granica ide Uralom, Kaspijskim jezerom, i Kumo-Maničkom dolinom do Azovskog mora. Postoje i mišljenja da granicu između Azije i Evrope čine Ural i Kaspijsko Jezero, i da celo nekadašnje Sovjetsko zakavkazje još spada u Evropu. Ipak ove teorije su bez nekog velikog praktičnog značaja. Ural je posmatrano geografski i kulturno pre veza a ne pregrada između dva kontinenta. Ranije je Azija imala kopnenu vezu sa Afrikom, ali ih sada odvaja Suecki kanal. Između Azije i Amerike se prostire Tihi okean, ali su na krajnjem severu udaljene samo 92 kilometra. Naučnici smatraju da su preko ovog tesnaca zimi kad je more zaleđeno, preci Indijanaca došli iz Azije u Ameriku. U novije vreme, ovaj put su koristili ruski kolonisti da stignu na Aljasku.[6][7]

Izrael nije član ni jedne od pet geografskih grupacija koje bi ga kvalifikovale za članstvo u Savetu Bezbednosti po prihvaćenoj praksi. Ima vremenski neodređeno privremeno članstvo u grupi „Zapadna Evropa i Drugi“ ali se složio da ne traži članstvo u UNSB po toj osnovi. Više od polovine hitnih sednica UN-a su bile odgovor na regionalne krize. In 334 BC, Alexander the Great invaded the Achaemenid Empire, defeating the last Achaemenid emperor, Darius III, at the Battle of Issus. Following the premature death of Alexander, Iran came under the control of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire. In the middle of the second century BC, the Parthian Empire rose to become the main power in Iran, and the century-long geopolitical arch-rivalry between the Romans and the Parthians began, culminating in the Roman–Parthian Wars. The Parthian Empire continued as a feudal monarchy for nearly five centuries, until 224 CE, when it was succeeded by the Sasanian Empire.[96] Together with their neighboring arch-rival, the Roman-Byzantines, they made up the world's two most dominant powers at the time, for over four centuries.[28][29] Nakon napada Persije na Vavilon i njegovog sloma, pod vođstvom Ezre i Nehemije, raseljeno judejsko stanovništvo vraća se nazad. Teritorija Judeje potpada pod makedonsku vlast 333. p. n. e., ali se jevrejska državnost uspotavlja ponovo nakon ustanka Makebajaca 165. p. n. e. Tada dolazi do formiranja Hašmonejske kraljevine, sa Jerusalimom kao glavnim gradom. Kraljevinu Hašmonejaca uništavaju Rimljani 66. p. n. e., a izraelski ustanci 70 goidine posle nove ere i 135 godine posle nove ere, osim fizičkog pustošenja dovode i do prisilnog preterivanja jevrejskog stanovništva i početka druge dijaspore, koja će se završiti tek u 20. veku.[23]

Iran's first symphony orchestra, the Tehran Symphony Orchestra, was founded by Qolam-Hoseyn Minbashian in 1933. It was reformed by Parviz Mahmoud in 1946, and is currently Iran's oldest and largest symphony orchestra. Later, by the late 1940s, Ruhollah Khaleqi founded the country's first national music society, and established the School of National Music in 1949.[464] Sljedeću podjelu na regije Azije (regionalna podjela), između ostalih, koristi i Direkcija Ujedinjenih naroda za statistiku (UNSD): Ime Azija potiče od asirske reči Assu, što znači izlazak Sunca. Azija je kontinent prepun suprotnosti. U Aziji se nalaze najviše planine na svetu, a duž njenih obala se prostiru najdublje morske potoline. U Aziji se nalaze oblasti sa jakom vulkanskom aktivnošću, ali i veoma mirna područja, najveće visoravni, velike nizije i čitava područja bez odvodnjavanja ka moru. I klima Azije je veoma raznovrsna. Najveći deo svetskog stanovništva živi u Aziji, a nacionalni i jezički sastav je raznovrsniji nego na bilo kom drugom kontinentu. Aziju odlikuje bogatstvo starih kultura, ali i velike verske, ekonomske i socijalne suprotnosti. Izrealska književnost se uglavnom sastoji od poezije i proze na hebrejskom jeziku, nastalu u periodu renesanse od sredine 19. veka. Mali broj dela preveden je i objavljen na druge jezike. Prema izraelskom zakonu sva štampana dela imaju dva primerka deponovana u Nacionalnoj biblioteci i Hebrejskom univerzitetu u Jerusalimu. Godine 2001, zakon je izmenjen i proširen na audio i video-snimke i druge ne štampane medije.[89] U 2006. godini oko 85% knjiga prenesenih u biblioteci bilo je na hebrejskom jeziku.[90]

Hilfsprojekte in Asien - alle Einsatzorte UNICEF Deutschland

The fourth most populous city of Iran, Karaj, has a population of around 1.9 million (2016 census). It is the capital of the province of Alborz, and is situated 20 km west of Tehran, at the foot of the Alborz mountain range. It is a major industrial city in Iran, with large factories producing sugar, textiles, wire, and alcohol. Ogromna prostranstva Azije gotovo da su nenaseljena, ali Azija je ipak kontinent sa najvećim brojem stanovnika. Na jugu i istoku nekoliko zemalja obogatilo se zahvaljujući svojim velikim rezervama nafte ili uspešnoj modernoj industriji. Međutim, u mnogim drugim zemljama vlada siromaštvo. Većina ljudi bavi se obradom zemlje i zavisi od poplava ili suša. Gradovi u Aziji postaju sve veći jer se u njih doseljava sve više ljudi iz unutrašnjosti u potrazi za poslom. In April 2019 the U.S. threatened to sanction countries continuing to buy oil from Iran after an initial six-month waiver announced in November expired.[294] According to the BBC, U.S. sanctions against Iran "have led to a sharp downturn in Iran's economy, pushing the value of its currency to record lows, quadrupling its annual inflation rate, driving away foreign investors, and triggering protests."[295]

Entfernung Swasiland: Wo liegt Swasiland? (Swaziland)

Iran's official New Year begins with Nowruz, an ancient Iranian tradition celebrated annually on the vernal equinox. It is enjoyed by people adhering to different religions, but is considered a holiday for the Zoroastrians. It was registered on the UNESCO's list of Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity in 2009,[485] described as the Persian New Year,[486][487][488][489] shared with a number of other countries in which it has historically been celebrated. According to a study by David Morrison and Ali Khadem Hosseini (Harvard-MIT and Cambridge), stem cell research in Iran is amongst the top 10 in the world.[371] Iran ranks 15th in the world in nanotechnologies.[372][373][374] Asien wird im Norden vom Arktischen Ozean, im Osten vom Pazifischen Ozean und im Süden vom Indischen Ozean begrenzt. On 3 January 2020, the revolutionary guard's general, Qasem Soleimani, was assassinated by the United States, which considerably heightened the existing tensions between the two countries.[196] Three days after, on the occasion of a retaliatory attack on US forces in Iraq, a civilian airliner with 176 passengers and crew was shot down near the capital of Iran by the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, which was initially denied. International investigation led to the government admitting to the shootdown of the plane by a surface-to-air missile after three days of denial, calling it a "human error".[197][198]

In 1729, Nader Shah, a chieftain and military genius from Khorasan, successfully drove out and conquered the Pashtun invaders. He subsequently took back the annexed Caucasian territories which were divided among the Ottoman and Russian authorities by the ongoing chaos in Iran. During the reign of Nader Shah, Iran reached its greatest extent since the Sasanian Empire, reestablishing the Iranian hegemony all over the Caucasus, as well as other major parts of the west and central Asia, and briefly possessing what was arguably the most powerful empire at the time.[31] Kolem roku 1900 žilo v Asii 947 milionu lidí.[3] Od té doby počet obyvatel Asie vzrostl čtyřnásobně a v roce 2012 dosáhl 4 175 038 363 a stále stoupá.[4] Polovinu tvoří obyvatelstvo do 20 let.

In the midst of World War II, in 1941, Nazi Germany launched Operation Barbarossa and invaded the Soviet Union, breaking the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. This had a major impact on Iran, which had declared neutrality in the conflicts.[158] Later that year, following an Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran, Reza Shah was forced to abdicate in favor of his son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.[159][160] Subsequently, Iran became a major conduit for British and American aid to the Soviet Union, until the end of the ongoing war.[161] To the west, settlements in the Zagros basin experience lower temperatures, severe winters with below zero average daily temperatures and heavy snowfall. The eastern and central basins are arid, with less than 200 mm (7.9 in) of rain, and have occasional deserts.[205] Average summer temperatures rarely exceed 38 °C (100.4 °F).[202] The coastal plains of the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman in southern Iran have mild winters, and very humid and hot summers. The annual precipitation ranges from 135 to 355 mm (5.3 to 14.0 in).[202] Australija je najsušniji kontinent, pa je najveći problem nedostatak vode u unutrašnjosti jer trećina Australije nema vodenih tokova ili su oni povremeni. Najvažnija reka Australije je Mari koja se nalazi na jugoistoku. Bogata je vodom zato što izvire u planinskim pregledima, pa se njene koriste za navodnjavanje

Estamboli polo- Tomatris med potatis (veganskt) - ZEINAS

Das Wort „Asien“ geht über das lateinische Asia auf griechisch Ἀσία (Asía) zurück. Über die weitere Herkunft kann bis heute nur spekuliert werden. Angenommen wird meist eine Herkunft vom assyrischen assu „Sonnenaufgang, Osten“.[1] Der Name Asía würde demnach eine östliche Region benennen, die in der Richtung des Sonnenaufgangs liegt, und entspräche darin dem lateinischen Wort Orient oder dem deutschen „Morgenland“. Die frühen Griechen nannten zunächst nur die Landmasse Kleinasiens Asien, woraus sich später auch der Name der römischen Provinz Asia ergab. Von Plinius dem Älteren (Naturalis historia, um 77 n. Chr.) wurde der Name dann auch auf den größeren Kontinent bezogen. Langfristig wurde so das alte Asia zu Asia minor. The Islamic Republic of Iran has two types of armed forces: the regular forces of the Army, the Air Force, and the Navy, and the Revolutionary Guards, totaling about 545,000 active troops. Iran also has around 350,000 Reserve Force, totaling around 900,000 trained troops.[297]

Welcher Kontinent ist Irak? Irak war die Heimat der alten Zivilisationen. Irak ist ein etablierter Staat in der unteren mesopotamischen region. Es hat die größte Fläche mit 437.072 Quadratkilometern, nach Saudi-Arabien und Iran, unter den Golfstaaten. Es ist von der Türkei im Norden, Syrien und Jordanien im Westen, Iran im Osten, Saudi. The Safavid era peaked in the reign of Abbas I (1587–1629),[129][137] surpassing their Turkish archrivals in strength, and making Iran a leading science and art hub in western Eurasia. The Safavid era saw the start of mass integration from Caucasian populations into new layers of the society of Iran, as well as mass resettlement of them within the heartlands of Iran, playing a pivotal role in the history of Iran for centuries onwards. Following a gradual decline in the late 1600s and the early 1700s, which was caused by internal conflicts, the continuous wars with the Ottomans, and the foreign interference (most notably the Russian interference), the Safavid rule was ended by the Pashtun rebels who besieged Isfahan and defeated Sultan Husayn in 1722. U mnogim publikacijama definicije granica ovih regija nisu strogo određene, te one variraju u zavisnosti od cilja, teme i pozadine. Ranije je naprimjer Afganistan uvrštavan u centralnu Aziju, danas ga obuhvataju u područje južne Azije. Osim toga, postoje i neke alternativne odnosno dodatne podjele kao što je naprimjer sjeveroistočna Azija.

Throughout the Achaemenid, Parthian, and Sasanian eras, several offshoots of the Iranian dynasties established eponymous branches in Anatolia and the Caucasus, including the Pontic Kingdom, the Mihranids, and the Arsacid dynasties of Armenia, Iberia (Georgia), and Caucasian Albania (present-day Republic of Azerbaijan and southern Dagestan). Auf Initiative der USA, Japans und Australiens wurde 1989 die Asiatisch-Pazifische Wirtschaftsgemeinschaft (APEC) geschaffen, deren Ziel die Einrichtung einer alle Pazifik-Anrainerstaaten umfassenden Freihandelszone in zwei Schritten ist: Ab 2010 sollen die Freihandelsabkommen für die Industrienationen der Regionen gelten, ab 2020 auch für die Entwicklungsländer. Asiatische Mitglieder der APEC sind Brunei, die Volksrepublik China, Indonesien, Japan, Malaysia, Papua-Neuguinea, die Philippinen, Russland, Singapur, Südkorea, Taiwan, Thailand und Vietnam.

Nakon sticanja nezavisnosti 1948, nova jevrejska država formalno je nazvana Medinat Izrael (מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל), odnosno država Izrael. Predlagana su nekoliko verskih i istorijskih imena, među kojima su Erec Izrael (Zemlja Izrael), Sion i Judeja, ali su ona nakon razmatranja odbijena.[14] U prvim nedeljama nezavisnosti, Vlada je izabrala termin Izraelci za nazivanje državljana Izraela.[15] Većina država u centralnoj i sjevernoj Aziji bili su do raspada 1990/1991. dio Sovjetskog saveza te tako planski orjentirane privrede. Ekonomija ovih zemalja je najvećim dijelom obilježena poljoprivredom i teškom industrijom. Bogatstvo sirovinama u nekim područjima poput nafte i zemnog plina naročito oko Kaspijskog jezera i ponegdje u sibirskoj tundri sve više dobijaju na značaju, zbog povećane svjetske potražnje za energentima noseći sa sobom i određene nepoželjne posljedice za stanovništvo kao što su zagađenje okoline, korupcija i ratovi. Traditionally, the guiding formative motif of Iranian architecture has been its cosmic symbolism "by which man is brought into communication and participation with the powers of heaven".[447] This theme has not only given unity and continuity to the architecture of Persia, but has been a primary source of its emotional character as well. Íslamska repúblika Irán je obmorska država na Bližnjem Vzhodu, v jugozahodni Aziji.Iran je islamska republika.Do leta 1935 je bil znan kot Perzija.Na vzhodu meji na Pakistan in Afganistan, na severovzhodu na Turkmenistan, na severu na Kaspijsko jezero in Azerbajdžan, na severozahodu na Armenijo, na zahodu na Turčijo in Irak (), na jugu pa na vodovje Perzijskega zaliva in Omanskega zaliva

Pored jevrejskih autora, značajne uspehe imalo su i muslimanski stvaraoci. Mnogobrojna dela kontroverzne tematike koji se bave izraelskim sukobima i statusom Palestine izazvala su pažnju publike. Film Dženin, Dženin (Jenin, Jenin) iz 2002. autora Muhameda Bakria koji je zasnovan na izraelskoj vojnoj akciji u gradu Dženin (Zapadna obala), dobio je nagradu za najbolji film na Kartaginskom međunarodnom festivalu,[95] i pored činjenice da su ga izraelski kritičari prozvali zbog iskrivljenog predstavljanja događaja. Filmska priča iz 2009. godine, o nasilju i diskriminaciji u mešovitom jevrejsko-araom naselju nadomak Tel Avive, ispričana u filmu Ajmi bila je vrlo zapažena na Kanskom filmskom festivalu. Žiri je dodelio posebnz pohvalu režiserskom palestinsko-jevrejskom paru. Sirijska nevesta koja prati priču Druza u Golanskoj visoravni dobila je nekoliko značajnih filmskih nagrada.[traži se izvor] By the second millennium BC, the ancient Iranian peoples arrived in what is now Iran from the Eurasian Steppe,[82] rivaling the native settlers of the region.[83][84] As the Iranians dispersed into the wider area of Greater Iran and beyond, the boundaries of modern-day Iran were dominated by Median, Persian, and Parthian tribes. Sibiřské a středoasijské hercynidy a kaledonidy jsou na velkých plochách pokryty druhohorními a třetihorními nezvrásněnými vrstvami, které tak tvoří mladé platformy: Západosibiřská nížina, Turanská nížina, Tádžická pánev.

Irák leží ve strategické poloze ve středu Blízkého východu a má i krátký přístup k Perskému zálivu. Hraničí s Kuvajtem a Saúdskou Arábií na jihu, Jordánskem na západě, Sýrií na severozápadě, Tureckem na severu a Íránem na východě.Iran has an area of 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi).[3] It lies between latitudes 24° and 40° N, and longitudes 44° and 64° E. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia (35 km or 22 mi), the Azeri exclave of Nakhchivan (179 km or 111 mi),[199] and the Republic of Azerbaijan (611 km or 380 mi); to the north by the Caspian Sea; to the northeast by Turkmenistan (992 km or 616 mi); to the east by Afghanistan (936 km or 582 mi) and Pakistan (909 km or 565 mi); to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman; and to the west by Iraq (1,458 km or 906 mi) and Turkey (499 km or 310 mi). Arabská platforma byla původně součástí Afriky, ale začala se od ní oddělovat příkopovou propadlinou, jejíž velkou část nyní vyplňuje Rudé moře. Nejstarší horniny jsou asi 1 miliardu let staré a nacházejí se v haliské formaci. Asi polovinu platformy tvoří prekambrické metamorfity, druhá polovina se skládá z granitoidů. Na západním okraji eroduje a klesá do příkopu Rudého moře. Východní okraj se zvedá i s akumulovanými usazeninami. Mezi vlastním štítem a Perským zálivem je mocný platformní pokryv prvohor, druhohor a třetihor. Nacházejí se tu hojné formace s ložisky ropy z období svrchní křídy a eocénu. The majority of the population speak Persian, which is also the official language of the country. Others include speakers of a number of other Iranian languages within the greater Indo-European family, and languages belonging to some other ethnicities living in Iran.

Fish and Chips med remouladsås - ZEINAS KITCHEN

In der griechischen Mythologie war Asia der Name einer Okeanide (oder auch Mutter einer solchen bei Hesiod), nach der wiederum die geographische Region benannt worden sein sollte. Nach Aischylos (Promētheús desmṓtēs, um 470 v. Chr.) ist sie zudem die Gattin des Titanen Iapetos und Mutter des Prometheus, nach Herodot (Historien, 5. Jahrhundert v. Chr.) dessen Gattin. The Cultural Revolution began in 1980, with an initial closure of universities for three years, in order to perform an inspection and clean up in the cultural policy of the education and training system.[177] Azija ima 4 milijarde stanovnika.[8] Najveći deo azijskog stanovništva čine Kinezi 38%. Gustina naseljenosti je 95 stanovnika po kvadratnom kilometru. Naseljenost Azije je veoma neravnomerna; devet desetina azijskog stanovništva, što čini polovinu čovečanstva živi u monsunskim zemljama. Veći deo azijskog stanovništva čine narodi mongoloidnog biološkog tipa, podeljeni u više grupa-istočnoazijsku (Kinezi, Koreanci), srednjoazijsku (Mongoli), jugoistočnoazijsku (Vijetnamci), a prema gruboj proceni, u ovu grupu bi se mogli svrstati i muslimanski narodi srednje Azije koji su mešavina europedne i mongoloidne biološke zajednice, ali sa više mongoloidnih gena, kao i Japanci koji predstavljaju mešavinu japanskih starosedilaca negroidnog izgleda-Ainua sa doseljenicima mongoloidnog biološkog tipa. Evropeidni biološki tip nema mnogo manje pripadnika u Aziji od mongoloidnog tipa. Ovaj tip čine Indijci, kao i stanovnici severnijih azijskih zemalja, posebno arae zemlje.

1997 wurde die Gruppe der acht Entwicklungsländer (D-8) gegründet, der neben Ägypten und Nigeria die asiatischen Staaten Bangladesch, Indonesien, Iran, Malaysia, Pakistan und die Türkei angehören. Ziel der D-8 ist es, ihre Stellung in der Weltwirtschaft zu verbessern, Handelsbeziehungen zu diversifizieren und neue Handelsbeziehungen zu schaffen, die Teilhabe bei Entscheidungen auf internationaler Ebene auszubauen und so für bessere Lebensbedingungen der Menschen in Entwicklungsländern zu sorgen. Ime kontinenta se kod azijskih starosedelaca i antičkih grčkih pisaca odnosilo se samo na ostrvo istočno od Kaspijskog jezera. Pored Egipta, Azija je domovina najstarijih kultura: sumerska u Mesopotamiji, hetitska u Maloj Aziji (XX vek pre nove ere.), asirska (1250 – 600. pne.) u Mesopotamiji, kao i vavilonska (oko 600. pne.). Potom sledi persijski period od VI do IV veka pre nove ere. Die Richter (ca. 1250 v. Chr.) und die Erzväter, die als früheste Überlieferungen der jüdischen Geschichte gelten, hatten ihren Ursprung in Mesopotamien, wo die Vorfahren der Hebräer als Nomadenvolk lebten. Abraham, der Stammvater Israels, soll selbst aus Ur gekommen sein. Tradiert ist die jüdische Religion in einer in der Tora festgehaltenen schriftlichen und einer mündlichen Lehre (Talmud u. a.). In 750, the Abbasids overthrew the Umayyads, notably by the support from the "mawali" (converted Iranians).[113] The mawali formed the majority of the rebel army, which was led by converted Iranian general Abu Muslim.[114][115][116] The arrival of the Abbasid Caliphs saw a relative revival of Iranian culture and influence, as the role of the old Arab aristocracy was partially replaced by a Muslim Iranian bureaucracy.[117] Na této stránce najdete minulé, současné a budoucí statistiky obyvatel u Irák (od 1950-2100), mapu obyvatelstva, demografie, živé pult obyvatelstva atd. Dotaz: Kolik lidí žije zde: Irák? Odpověď: Aktuální počet obyvatel zde: Irák 41 909 137*[1], rozloha 437072 km², Hustota zalidnění 95.89 p/km². Hlavní město této země je Irák Baghdad. Kontinent: Asie.

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Vermutlich in Baktrien entstand zwischen 1800 v. Chr. und 700 v. Chr. der Zoroastrismus, eine der ältesten, wenn auch ursprünglich dualistischen, monotheistischen (Ahura Mazda) Religionen, die bis heute überdauert hat. Apart from the rule of Agha Mohammad Khan, the Qajar rule is characterized as a century of misrule.[126] The Iranian Cossack Brigade, which was the most effective military force available to the crown, began a military coup supported by the British in February 1921. The Qajar dynasty was subsequently overthrown, and Reza Khan, the former general of the Cossack Brigade, became the new Prime Minister of Iran. Eventually, he was declared the new monarch in 1925—thence known as Reza Shah—establishing the Pahlavi dynasty. Najveće razlike između raznih delova Azije ogledaju se u klimi. Cela severna i srednja Azija je visokim planinama zaklonjena od uticaja toplog Indijskog okeana. Zato u ovom području vlada izrazita kontinentalna klima. U predelima koji su otvoreni prema Indijskom i Tihom okeanu vlada monsunska klima što znači da su leta vrlo vlažna, a zime suve. Klima u Jugozapadnoj Aziji je suva, suptroa. Krajnji jug Azije, a naročito ostrva spadaju u pravi troi pojas. S obzirom da ljudi već jako dugo naseljavaju ova područja, prvobitna vegetacije, koja je posledica prirodnih uslova je znatno izmenjena. Tokom 2010. izraelsku populaciju činilo je 7,6 miliona stanovnika,[7] od kojih je 5.776.500 Jevreja.[7][8][9][72] Prema podacima Državnog zavoda za statistiku iz 2008. godine procenjuje se da arai građani čine 20% ukupne populacije.[73]

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