Philippinen mindanao konflikt

Guide to the Philippines conflict - BBC New

Challenge. Conflict-affected communities in Mindanao are among the poorest in the Philippines suffering from poor infrastructure and lack of basic services (including education and health), weak local governance, and minimal private sector investment The Philippines campaign of 1944-45 was the Allied campaign to defeat Japanese forces occupying The Philippines, during World War II. The invasion commenced on 20 October 1944 and hostilities continued until the war's end. By mid-1944, American forces were only 300 miles southeast of Mindanao, the southernmost island in the Philippines Duterte, the first Filipino president from Mindanao, faces a similar, if not more menacing, conundrum in Marawi, as public pressure mounts on the government to address the growing threat posed by extremist groups that have wrecked havoc across the island for decades.  Philippines: Who is doing What and Where in Mindanao Conflict Simultaneous law enforcement operations of the Armed Forces of the Philippines against non-state armed groups are reported in the provinces of Maguindanao, Lanao del Sur and Sulu since the first half of March 2019 Philippines President Rodrigo Duterte has cut short an official visit to Moscow after deadly clashes erupted between Filipino government troops and Islamist militants Tuesday in the southern city.

Rajahnates and Hindu-Buddhismedit

The Hindu-Buddhist cultural revolution was strongest in the coastal areas of the island, but were incorporated into local animist beliefs and customs tribes that resided more inland. The Rajahnate of Butuan, a fully Hindu kingdom mentioned in Chinese records as a tributary state in the 10th century, was concentrated along the northeastern coast of the island around Butuan.[14][failed verification] The Darangen epic of the Maranao people harkens back to this era as the most complete local version of the Ramayana. The Maguindanao at this time also had strong Hindu beliefs, evidenced by the Ladya Lawana (Rajah Ravana) epic saga that survives to the present, albeit highly Islamized from the 17th century onward. The Mindanao Conflict and Prospects for Peace in the Southern Philippines Excerpted from Mindanao: A Perspective on Youth, Inter-Ethnic Dialogue and Conflict Resolution In the Southern Philippines by Susan D. Russell, Lina Davide-Ong, April Rica Gonzalez, Rey Ty, Nagasura T. Madale, and Noemi A. Medin The government estimates that full reconstruction and rehabilitation of the city will take up to four years and cost PHP50bn, yet some have predicted the final bill will surpass PHP150bn. International organizations such as the World Bank and foreign governments including Australia, China, Japan and the US have all pledged financial support, whilst President Duterte has allocated an initial PHP10bn for the rehabilitation of Marawi in this year’s budget. Despite these commitments, little can be done to speed up recovery and get residents home sooner.It is in the interests of both parties to maintain the kind of co-operation that the VFA facilitated, even if the agreement must now be revived in a different form and under a different name. A renegotiation of aspects of the VFA as part of a new deal, acceptable to both Duterte and Trump, may be possible if both men opt to put the shared security interests of their respective countries ahead of political gain in the domestic sphere – where their populist bases are largely supportive of an isolationist approach to foreign policy. Longer-term, the future of the US-Philippine security alliance will be passed into the hands of new leaders: Duterte’s single six-year term ends in 2022, while Trump is seeking re-election in November. A US-friendly leader in Manila, or a Democratic president in the US, would likely lead to a return to the more engaged Obama-era relationship between the US and its Southeast Asian allies: centred on strengthening security partnerships, and opposing Chinese actions in the maritime realm.Mindanao (/mɪndəˈnaʊ/ (listen)), also commonly known as Southern Philippines, is the second-largest island in the Philippines. Mindanao and the smaller islands surrounding it make up the island group of the same name. Located in the southern region of the archipelago, as of the 2010 census, the main island was inhabited by 20,281,545 people, while the entire Mindanao island group had an estimated population of 25,537,691 (2018).

By the late 18th century Spain had geographic dominance over the island, having established settlements and forts in most of Mindanao, including Zamboanga City (which was then settled by Peruvian soldiers)[18] and Misamis Occidental to the northwest, Iligan City, Misamis Oriental, Bukidnon, and Camiguin Island to the north, Butuan and the Caraga region to the east, and Davao in the island's gulf coast. Spain continued to engage in battles with Muslim Sultanates until the end of the 19th century.[17] On Tuesday, President Rodrigo Duterte imposed martial law on the southern island of Mindanao, which includes Marawi. Mindanao, home to 20 million people, is the heart of the country’s long-simmering Muslim insurgency.

Upon his hasty return, Duterte upped the ante by suggesting he may place, if needed, the entire country under martial law to "protect and preserve the Filipino nation". The announcement provoked a flurry of criticisms, including from leading legislators, who argued that a nationwide Martial Law is a step too far.Even before the Marawi siege ended in October, regional leaders gathered on several occasions to discuss responses to the evolving threat. Indonesian President Joko Widodo described Marawi as a ‘‘wake-up call’’ regarding the threat posed to Southeast Asia, whilst Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Razak reaffirmed his country’s commitment to tackle Islamist terror groups in the region. In September, security officials from all ten ASEAN states took part in a specially-convened meeting on the ‘Rise of Radicalization and Violent Extremism’ in the region, whilst terrorism also topped the agenda at November’s 31st ASEAN Summit hosted by Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte in Manila.The impact of these counter-terrorism measures has been limited for several reasons. ASEAN’s strict adherence to consensus-based decision-making and the principle of non-interference has faced criticism, whilst the bloc’s use of vague language and its lack of enforcement capabilities have prevented the introduction of concrete region-wide measures to tackle terrorism. The grouping has often been described as a forum for discussion rather than a powerful body willing to push its members into taking firm action. Mindanao, is arguably the most resource-rich regions, and is home to numerous ethnic and religious groups. Mindanao, referred to as the Land of Promise throughout Philippine history, is also the setting of the multifaceted, complicated ethnic conflict that has plagued the region for over four decades

Mindanao humanitarian needs real-Oxfam Friday, September 26th, 2008 Posted in Glenn Maboloc, Philippines | No Comments » UK aid agency disputes Palace denial of crisis Philippine Daily Inquirer First Posted 03:36am (Mla time) 09/26/2008 MANILA, Philippines—Hunger and disease stalk makeshift camps for people forced out of their homes in the current fighting in Mindanao and mothers risk. Many observers have questioned the sense in Duterte terminating an agreement that has for the past 22 years underpinned what is arguably Washington’s most strategically important security alliance in Asia. The immediate trigger appears to be the US decision in January to rescind a visa for Ronald dela Rosa – a senator and close political ally of Duterte, who in his former role as national police chief led Duterte’s violent anti-drug campaign; roundly criticized in the West over alleged extra-judicial killings.

The United States has offered a $5 million reward for Mr. Hapilon’s capture. In January, the Philippine military tried to kill him in an airstrike, but he was only wounded. The Mindanao Displacement Dashboard is a monthly publication of the Protection Cluster in Mindanao, Philippines, which is co-led by UNHCR with the Department of Social Welfare and Development Geography. The Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) was situated in mainland Mindanao in the southern Philippines and was created by virtue of the Republic Act No. 6734 which signed into law by President Corazon Aquino on August 1, 1989. The plebiscite was conducted in the proposed area of ARMM on November 17, 1989 in the provinces of Maguindanao, Lanao del Sur, Sulu, and Tawi-Tawi

Philippines Crisis Grou


Ongoing conflict in the Mindanao region of the Southern Philippines has led to wide displacement of residents, lack of essential services, and high rates of poverty and youth unemployment. As in many regions of conflict, formal economic, educational, and civic opportunities are scarce—a combination of factors that pushes many young people. Marawi’s residents are eager to return home, but their city has been reduced to rubble and large parts of it will remain uninhabitable for the foreseeable future. The conflict will leave lasting scars not only on the landscape, but also in the minds of those who witnessed the horrors inflicted by ISIS and those who have lived through its aftermath in desperate conditions.


Growth corridor strategy to improve infrastructure, enhance connectivity and ensure balanced growth in Mindanao. DAVAO CITY, April 6, 2018 - With Mindanao accounting a third of the Philippines' poor - but only a quarter of its population, unlocking Mindanao's potential is critical in bringing down poverty in the entire country, says a new report launched today by the World Bank, the. The military initially hoped to defeat the jihadists within a few weeks, but as residents anxiously waited for news the conflict ran-on for five long months as the city was reduced to rubble through intense ground battles and sustained aerial bombardment. The scale of devastation was immense, as security forces engaged in some of the heaviest fighting witnessed in the Philippines since World War Two. The Philippine Congress has vowed to fast-track a long-delayed bill establishing self-rule for Muslims in the southern island of Mindanao, in response to President Rodrigo Duterte's warning that. in Mindanao having a Christian majority overall, with Muslim-majority areas concentrated in he central andt southwestern regions . 1. The Conflict in Contemporary Times . The conflict in Mindanao has been only one of five major conflicts in the Philippines since independence. 2. It ha The history of the armed struggle in Mindanao runs deeper than all the liberation fronts that have championed its cause Follow Rappler on Social Media: Facebook - https://www.facebook.com.

Sultanates and Islamedit

By Eric Demeter November, 2013 Additional insights discussing intractable conflicts are offered by Beyond Intractability participants. Introduction The conflict in Mindanao, Philippines is complicated, and there are a myriad of leaders and political groups that are associated with it. Three main Muslim separatists groups lie at the heart of the conflict Summary The stalemate between the Philippine government and the insurgent forces of the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF), the ongoing global War on Terror, and the government's desire for peace in the southern Philippines in order to bolster the country's economy have created an environment conducive to a resolution of the Muslim secessionist rebellion in the south Mr. Duterte cut short a trip to Russia this week to oversee the military operation and declared martial law in Mindanao.For as long as their flame still burns, the IS-linked jihadists of the Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters and the Mautes will represent the greatest barrier to a lasting peace in the Philippines’ troubled south.

Colonization eraedit

Contamination of the main battle area with IEDs planted by the militants and unexploded ordnance (UXO) from military air raids presents the most immediate barrier to return. Task Force Bangon Marawi (TFBN), the multi-agency group set-up by the government to co-ordinate the rehabilitation effort, is currently working alongside military engineers to clear the hard-hit central Banggolo area. Mindanao Armed Conflict Governor Catamco settles rido in Matalam, lets parties sign peace pact CARMEN, North Cotabato - Cotabato Gov. Nancy Catamco today convened the warring families in Matalam, North Cotabato and successfully convinced the warring parties to a diplomatic arrangement and signed a peace pact On Tuesday, security forces in Marawi tried and failed to capture Isnilon Hapilon, an Islamist militant on the F.B.I.’s list of most-wanted terrorists. They were confronted by at least 100 militants, some of whom carried sophisticated weapons.

Philippine Commonwealthedit

This book deals with rido in Mindanao (southern Philippines). Rido is a type of conflict characterized by sporadic outbursts of retaliatory violence between families and kinship groups as well as between communities. It can occur in areas where government or a central authority is weak and in areas where there is a perceived lack of justice and security May 24, 2017 Emergency Message for U.S. Citizens: Mindanao Security Situation The U.S. Embassy cautions U.S. citizens that there is an ongoing conflict between terrorist groups and Philippine Security Forces in Marawi City, Mindanao. Media reports suggest that there are multiple dead and injured. On May 23, 2017, the Philippine government declared martial law throughout. The conflict between Moro Muslims and the Filipino government has ground on for almost five decades, leaving 150.000 dead and two million displaced. But it may have just come to an end. Subscribe.

Der Mindanao-Konflikt im Süden der Philippinen - Analyse

Mindanao crisis: A city on fire Philippines Al Jazeer

Lake Lanao occupies a large portion of one such plateau in Lanao del Sur. This lake is the largest lake in Mindanao and the second largest in the country; it is roughly triangular in shape with an 18-mile-long (29 km) base, having a surface at 780 meters above sea level, and is rimmed on the east, south, and west by a series of peaks reaching 2,300 meters.[citation needed] Marawi City, at the northern tip of the lake, is bisected by the Agus River, that feeds the Maria Cristina Falls. When Rodrigo Duterte was elected as president of the Philippines in May 2016, hopes were raised for a negotiated end to one of Asia’s longest-running Maoist insurgencies. On the campaign trail Duterte had vowed, if elected, to enter into ‘inclusive talks’ with rebels from the New People’s Army (NPA), the military wing of the once-outlawed Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP). Peace talks did indeed begin in Norway last August, and got off to a positive start with both sides declaring separate ceasefires and agreeing to further rounds of dialogue, which took place in Oslo in October and Rome in January. At the turn of the year, it appeared steady progress was being made. The Mindanao conflict, expressed in Muslim armed resistance against the Philippine state, has deep historical roots. The Muslims, who prefer to be called Moros 1 rathe

Violent conflicts in the southwestern regions of Mindanao that began in the 1960s led to the 1971 Manili Massacre, Pata Island Massacre, the founding of the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF), Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF), and the formation of the Ilaga.[22] IRIN (formerly Integrated Regional Information Networks) reported in 2008 that women suffered the most in the Mindanao conflict. Displacement due to evacuation engenders problems and risks such as lack of water and privacy, susceptibility to diseases given the cramped space shared with other evacuees, sexual violence, trauma caused by death of. Mr. Hapilon has been trying to unite several smaller Islamist groups in the region, including the Maute, who are mostly in Marawi.Tropical storm Sendong (international name, Washi) made landfall on 15 December 2011 in Mindanao. The recorded 24-hour rainfall in Lumbia station of PAGASA reached 180.9 mm, causing the overflow of the Cagayan de Oro River. The storm killed 1,268 people, with 49 others listed as missing. Most of the casualties were from Cagayan de Oro and Iligan. Those who survived were rendered homeless, seeking shelter in evacuation centers.[26]

The shortage of fuel in the Philippines ended these patrols in early March, and the ships instead took turns watching for Japanese small craft at a position 3 miles east of Corregidor. On the afternoon of 25 March, they engaged nine enemy boats. Mindanao harassed enemy artillery east of Bataan 6 April. The same day, the gunboat helped rescue. Just like the siege itself, the path home for Marawi’s displaced inhabitants is set to be long, arduous and fraught with setbacks.Archaeological findings on the island point to evidence of human activity dating back about ten thousand years. Around 1500 BC Austronesian people spread throughout the Philippines.

With martial law lifted, what level of threat do ISIS’ surviving local affiliates represent in Mindanao? And despite ISIS’ declining global influence, after territorial losses in the Middle East and the death of its leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi in a US raid in Syria, could its followers in the Philippines rebound?The east-facing coastal regions of Davao and Surigao del Sur are marked by a series of small coastal lowlands separated from each other by rugged forelands which extend to the water's edge. Offshore are numerous coral reefs and tiny islets. This remote and forbidding coast is made doubly difficult to access during the months from October to March by the heavy surf driven before the northeast trade winds. A few miles offshore is found the Philippine Deep. This ocean trench, reaching measured depths of 34,696 feet (10,575 m), is the third-deepest trench, (after the Mariana Trench and Tonga Trench) on the earth's surface. The crisis in Marawi certainly got the region’s leaders thinking about how to better pool resources to tackle the growing threat from Islamist terrorism; but it has not yet resulted in an all-encompassing strategy involving all ten of ASEAN’s member-nations. Such an aim will always be difficult to achieve, due to the huge variation in threat along with the differing capabilities and priorities of ASEAN states.An earlier version of this article, written before it was announced that martial law would not be extended beyond December 2019, is published on Geopolitical Monitor.

The extremists were likely also emboldened by the fact that not only the president, but also his key cabinet members, including National Security Adviser Hermogenes Esperon, were in Moscow to secure a series of defence and trade deals.Perturbed by the scale and audacity of the attack, Duterte, who cut his Russia trip short, immediately declared all-out martial law across Mindanao. The Philippines' 1987 constitution allows Filipino leaders to declare it only when there is a "rebellion and invasion".

President Duterte came to power in 2016 promising to negotiate an end to the Philippines’ long-running internal conflicts, yet conditions appear only to have deteriorated. The government is now firefighting on multiple fronts: the army is still battling ISIS-aligned militants in Marawi, whilst at the same time Congress is trying to finalize a long-awaited peace deal with Moro separatist groups. And now, a resurgent communist insurgency is threatening to inflict further bloodshed. systematically address land conflict in Mindanao. The existing initiatives are small scale, however. A dedicated institution to mediate land conflicts may be necessary to more robustly tackle what is a pervasive problem. While it remains unclear where land management powers will lie until the signing of

The Latest Unrest in the Southern Philippines, Explained

The Moro conflict is an ongoing insurgency in Mindanao. In 1969, political tensions and open hostilities developed between the Government of the Philippines and Moro Muslim rebel groups. The Moro Insurgency was triggered by the Jabidah massacre, which saw the killing of 60 Filipino Muslim commandos who were to be used for a planned operation to reclaim the eastern part of the Malaysian state. MindaNews is the news service arm of the Mindanao Institute of Journalism. It is composed of independent, professional journalists who believe and practice people empowerment through media. Asia Mindanao conflict uproots tens of thousands. More than 120,000 people have fled their homes in the southern Philippine region of Mindanao, as fighting between government troops and Muslim. The Aquino administration and the MNLF sign the Jeddah Accord, where the Philippine government and MNLF agreed to continue talks on the proposal to grant Mindanao, Basilan, Sulu, Tawi-Tawi and Palawan full autonomy subject to democratic processes; 1990, Feb.: The Aquino administration establishes the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM)

CONFLICT IN MINDANAO. Root Causes and Status. ABHOUD SYED M. LINGGA Institute of Bangsamoro Studies. Asia DCHS Regional Workshop on Towards Liberating Democracy: Devolution of Power Matters Organized by International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance and Mahidol University Research Center on Peace Building Siam City Hotel, Bangkok, Thailand January 16-17, 2007 Conflict. More than a year since the uprising in Marawi, does the intensified violence witnessed in June indicate that IS-linked groups – considerably depleted after the siege – are rebounding in western Mindanao?The rise to prominence of radical groups such as Maute, and now the BIFF, comes at a crucial stage in the southern Philippines’ drawn-out peace process with the MILF, which has laid down its weapons since a provisional peace deal with the government was signed in 2014. Currently, lawmakers are debating the proposed Bangsamoro Basic Law (BBL) which would pave the way for a new autonomous region in the south to replace the existing Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM), constituting a final negotiated end to hostilities with the largest groups in the Moro rebel movement.Duterte may also have to revisit his earlier threat to reject, in light of disagreement on human rights issues, grants from the European Union, which has heavily invested in the Mindanao peace process.

Mindanao's history diverged early on from that of the rest of the Philippines simply because of geography, and more specifically its proximity to centres of Arab influence. Islam was introduced in the Sulu archipelago in the early 1300s, and was soon after brought to Cotabato and the Lanao area My first trip to the Philippines was in 1968 and to Mindanao in the 90's. The Philippines is not for everyone, for me it is home. The Philippines is not for everyone, for me it is home. I have traveled all around Mindanao and have never had a problem that I could not handle

Mindanao - Wikipedi

As of 2017, Mindanao had a population of over 25 million people. This comprises 22.1 percent of the entire population of the country.[37] There is some indication that the Agusan Valley occupies a broad syncline between the central mountains and the east-coast mountains. This valley measures 110 miles (180 km) from south to north and varies from 20 to 30 miles (32 to 48 km) in width. 35 miles (56 km) north of the head of Davao Gulf lies the watershed between the Agusan and the tributaries of the Libuganon River, which flows to the Gulf. The elevation of this divide is well under 200 m (660 ft), indicating the almost continuous nature of the lowland from the Mindanao Sea on the north to the Davao Gulf. Well, Mindanao hasn't fully experienced progress for it is still the land of wars and conflict in the Philippines. Undeniably, it is considered as the land of promise. Promise in a sense that it has a lot of natural resources that can be used to make the economy of the Philippines richer Major tourist spots are scattered throughout Mindanao, consisting mostly of beach resorts, scuba diving resorts, surfing, museums, nature parks, mountain climbing, and river rafting. Siargao, best known for its surfing tower in Cloud 9, also has caves, pools, waterfalls, and lagoons.[40] There are archaeological sites, historical ruins, and museums in Butuan.[41] White Island is a popular tourist spot in Camiguin. The Duka Bay[42] and the Matangale[43] dive resorts in Misamis Oriental offer glass bottomed boat rides and scuba diving lessons. Cagayan de Oro has beach resorts, the Mapawa Nature Park, white water rafting and kayaking, museums, and historical landmarks.[44] Ziplining is the main attraction at the Dahilayan Adventure Park in Bukidnon.[45] Iligan City has The Maria Christina Falls, Tinago Falls, nature parks, beaches, and historical landmarks.[46] There are parks, historical buildings, the Vinta Ride at Paseo del Mar, boat villages, 11 Islands (commonly called as Onçe Islas), 17th-century Fort Pilar Shrine & Museum and the world-renowned Pink Sand Beach of Sta. Cruz in Zamboanga City.[47] There are festivals, fireworks, and the Beras Bird Sanctuary in Takurong City.[48] Davao has Mt Apo, parks, museums, beaches, historical landmarks, and scuba diving resorts.[49] Whilst the small number of civilians trapped in the conflict zone endured a desperate daily battle for survival, dodging bullets and launching daring attempts to escape from their captors, those who had already managed to flee to safety were confronted with a new set of dire challenges.

The tough-talking Filipino president was on a five-day trip to Moscow, when news broke out that the Maute, an armed group affiliated with the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL, also known as ISIS), laid siege to the city of Marawi, the biggest urban centre in the Muslim-majority provinces of the Philippines.The NPA reached the height of its powers in the early-1980s during the dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos, when it attracted widespread public support and had more than 25,000 members. In the democratic era, the movement has declined in strength but still retains an operational presence in most provinces across the country, and now has around 4,800 active members. Clashes between NPA rebels and Philippine troops continue to occur sporadically as the insurgency approaches its sixth decade, despite repeated military crackdowns. The NPA remains especially strong in poorer rural areas where it enjoys widespread support and exercises de-facto control through the collection of ‘revolutionary taxes’; payments which Manila describes as extortion. Focusing on the armed conflict in the Southern Philippines, primarily the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM), this research applied a gender lens in order to identify the key issues, challenges, and opportunities for men and women in the context of program activities an

Shortly before dawn on 10 June, government airstrikes pounded militant hideouts in towns dotted around the edge of Liguasan Marsh. This sprawling wetland – straddling two provinces in the remote interior of the Philippines’ conflict-wracked southern island of Mindanao – has become just the latest front in the battle against the Islamic State (IS) in Southeast Asia, after militants allied to the notorious jihadi group laid siege to the city of Marawi – located 120km further north – for five months last year. In late January of this year, sixty-seven Filipinos died in Mamasapano, Mindanao—following a botched operation dubbed: Exodus. The public outcry was raw and visceral, awakening both a. Despite Duterte’s latest peace overture being accompanied by more positive rhetoric by both parties, recent history suggests that events could spiral downhill quickly if disagreement on the core stumbling blocks persists. Since talks first collapsed in 2017, relations between the government and the CPP have been characterized by rising hostility and distrust. Even amid the recent détente, on 5 January the new chief-of-staff of the Philippine armed forces, Lt. Gen. Felimon Santos, vowed to crush the NPA before the end of Duterte’s term in 2022 – a threat which Duterte himself his repeated on multiple occasions.At present, it is the BIFF which pose the greatest concern going forward. Radical groups such as the BIFF will remain attractive to those who will never accept autonomy and maintain a desire to see a fully-independent Islamic state created in the southern Philippines. This is especially true for those living in the most impoverished areas of Mindanao, who may feel disenfranchised and excluded from the potential benefits that any political settlement may bring.According to the 2015 Philippine Population Census, Davao City is the most populous city on the island, with 1,632,991 residents, followed by Zamboanga City (pop. 861,799), Cagayan de Oro City (pop. 675,950), General Santos City (pop. 594,446), Iligan City (pop. 342,618), Butuan City (pop. 337,063) and Cotabato City (pop. 299,438).[3] About 70% of residents identify as Christian and 20% as Muslim.[4] Mindanao is divided into six administrative regions: the Zamboanga Peninsula, Northern Mindanao, the Caraga region, the Davao region, Soccsksargen, and the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (BARMM).

Mindanao Conflict ACAP

On 11 February, Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte provided formal notice to the US of his decision to scrap the Visiting Forces Agreement (VFA) – a bilateral treaty inked in 1998 to facilitate the presence of US troops in the country. Duterte’s Foreign Secretary Teodoro Locsin had voiced his concerns over the risks of cancelling the agreement in a Senate hearing the previous week, warning the move could result in the ‘severe curtailment’ of America’s long-standing defence obligations to its former colony.Mindanao is the second-largest island in the Philippines at 97,530 square kilometers,[1] and is the eighth-most populous island in the world. The island of Mindanao is larger than 125 countries worldwide, including the Netherlands, South Korea, Austria, Portugal, Czech Republic, Hungary, and Ireland. The island is mountainous, and is home to Mount Apo, the highest mountain in the country. Mindanao is surrounded by four seas: the Sulu Sea to the west,[36] the Philippine Sea to the east, and the Celebes Sea to the south, and the Mindanao Sea to the north. Of all the islands of the Philippines, Mindanao shows the greatest variety of physiographic development. High, rugged, faulted mountains; almost isolated volcanic peaks; high rolling plateaus; and broad, level, swampy plains are found there. This case study report will examine the health impact of the Philippines, Mindanao conflict and will focus on the rehabilitation stage of the disaster cycle. 2. Pre-Event Status 2.1 Background Mindanao is the second largest island of the Philippines in land mass and is made up of Mindanao Island itself as well as the Sulu Archipelago The bill is expected to be passed later this year. Yet after slow progress in getting even to this stage, concerns have been voiced that if the bill is delayed further, or in a worst-case scenario fails to pass through Congress, frustrations will grow and fertile ground for jihadist recruitment will be created. President Duterte and MILF chairman Al Haj Murad Ebrahim have both warned of the radicalization risk. Duterte has talked repeatedly of the importance of correcting ‘historical injustices’ committed to the Moro people, whilst Ebrahim has described the BBL as being of ‘great importance for stability and security in Southeast Asia’. In a November interview with Channel News Asia, the MILF leader said ‘the longer this process takes, the more people are going to be radicalized’. Despite expressing his own frustration over the slow progress being made, Ebrahim has said the MILF remains firmly committed to the peace process and is staunchly opposed to radical groups such as the BIFF and Abu Sayyaf. Mindanao (/ m ɪ n d ə ˈ n aʊ / ()), also commonly known as Southern Philippines, is the second-largest island in the Philippines.Mindanao and the smaller islands surrounding it make up the island group of the same name. Located in the southern region of the archipelago, as of the 2010 census, the main island was inhabited by 20,281,545 people, while the entire Mindanao island group had an.


  1. That was until jihadists stormed the southern Philippine city of Marawi in May last year. The threat which had lain dormant beneath the surface since the decline of JI in the late 2000s had suddenly re-emerged in a form that was clearly regional in nature as ISIS announced their intention to carve out a Southeast Asian caliphate. Leaders quickly realised the need for closer co-operation to prevent the violence spreading, amid fears of further ISIS-inspired attacks and terrorist infiltration across borders.
  2. West of Davao City stand two inactive volcanoes: Mount Talomo at 2,893 meters (9,491 ft), and Mount Apo at 2,964 m (9,724 ft). Mount Apo is the highest point in the Philippines. South of Mount Apo, this central mountain belt is somewhat lower than it is to the north, with peaks averaging only 1,100 to 1,800 m (3,600 to 5,900 ft).
  3. The prosperous port city of Zamboanga was torn asunder by weeks-long clashes between the rebels and the Philippine military, which repeatedly pounded enemy positions from both the sky and the ground. Despite the military's efforts, the rebels initially managed to occupy several neighbourhoods, take control of government buildings, and take hundreds of civilians hostage.
  4. Today around 25.8 percent of the household population in Mindanao classified themselves as Cebuanos. Other ethnic groups included Bisaya/Binisaya (18.4%), Hiligaynon/Ilonggo (8.2%), Maguindanaon (5.5%), and Maranao (5.4%). The remaining 36.6 percent belonged to other ethnic groups. Cebuano registered the highest proportion of ethnic group in Northern Mindanao and Davao Region with 35.59 percent and 37.76 percent, respectively. In SOCCSKSARGEN, it was Hiligaynon/Ilonggo (31.58%), Binisaya/Bisaya (33.10%) in Zamboanga Peninsula, Maranao (26.40%) in ARMM, and Surigaonon (25.67%) in Caraga.[4]
  5. The peace process in Mindanao between the Philippine government and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front was an important step towards ending four decades of conflict in the south of the Philippines. But this initiative now faces many challenges

Philippines-Mindanao (1971 - first combat deaths

The continuation of these drills after the 180-day period ends would be uncertain in the absence of a replacement for the VFA. After Duterte’s decision, US Assistant Secretary of State for Political-Military Affairs, Clarke Cooper, said joint operations would be ‘put at risk’, emphasizing that ‘all engagements’ require a facilitating legal mechanism to be in place. Foreign Secretary Locsin said as much during the Senate hearing on 6 February, noting that the VFA was the ‘substance’ that made the MDT effective.In 1521 Antonio Pigafetta wrote an account of reaching 'Maingdano.' He was with Magellan on the first circumnavigation of the globe and sailing for the king of Spain.[15] The Economist offers authoritative insight and opinion on international news, politics, business, finance, science, technology and the connections between them

What underlies the BIFF’s intensified campaign of terror? And how has this previously little-known militant group emerged from being a mere footnote in Mindanao’s long-running armed Islamist insurgency to positioning itself as the last bastion of ISIS’ ambitions to carve out a regional caliphate? In the Philippines, the way elections are carried out tends to exacerbate political rivalries and is one of the major causes of feuding amongst families. This is one of the key findings in The Asia Foundation's book, RIDO: Clan Feuding and Conflict Management in Mindanao, the most comprehensive and informative resource on rido (family and clan feuds) in Mindanao. Mindanao, home to a majority. The southern Philippines has a long history of conflict, with armed groups including Muslim separatists, communists, clan militias and criminal groups all active in the area. BBC News looks at the. The mountains of Mindanao can be grouped into ten ranges, including both complex structural mountains and volcanoes. The structural mountains on the extreme eastern and western portions of the island show broad exposures of Mesozoic rock, and Ultrabasic rocks at the surface in many places along the east coast. Other parts of the island consist mainly of Cenozoic and Quaternary volcanic or sedimentary rocks.

Alarmist rhetoric aside, on the surface the threat from radical Islamists appears to have reduced since the Marawi siege ended. A military crackdown facilitated by Martial Law has kept up the pressure on the jihadists, while a long-delayed peace process with the region’s larger and more moderate Muslim rebel groups is inching towards a conclusion. The Bangsamoro Basic Law (BBL) is set to be passed next month, paving the way for the creation of a new autonomously-governed region for Muslim majority areas in Mindanao. It is hoped the landmark deal will forge a lasting peace between the government and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) – which has already laid down its arms – while at the same time reducing grievances among the Muslim population and tackling the core long-term drivers of terrorist recruitment in western Mindanao, which have sustained more radical groups for decades.In the interim, the prolonged marginalization and disenfranchisement of Marawi’s exiled community could create fertile ground for recruitment by ISIS in the areas of western Mindanao worst-affected by the displacement crisis. Should the government be doing more?Yet with Duterte and Trump at the helm, the US-Philippine security alliance appears to be weakening; and with the VFA set to be terminated, the defence establishments of both countries will hope for no lasting damage.Most internally-displaced persons (IDPs) sought refuge in the nearby provinces of Lanao del Sur and Lanao del Norte, with smaller numbers residing in Misamis Oriental and South Cotabato. The majority of those who fled have stayed with friends or relatives, yet tens-of-thousands more have been forced to seek shelter in cramped conditions in hastily-established state-run temporary evacuation centres.

Last year’s five-month siege of Marawi by ISIS-aligned militants however, proved to be a game-changer. The militants’ brazen attempt to take over a mid-sized city of more than 200,000 people and forge a Southeast Asian ISIS province centred on the Philippines’ war-ravaged southern island of Mindanao reignited the lingering threat, finally sparking the region’s authorities into action.An American census conducted in the early 1900s noted that the island was inhabited by people "greatly divided in origin, temperament and religion".[38] Evidence of the island's cultural diversity can be seen in the buildings and ruins of old Spanish settlements in the northwestern peninsula that span eastwards to the southern gulf coast, the site of the ancient Rajahnate of Butuan in the northeast region (Caraga), the Sultanates in the southwest (Sultanate of Sulu, Sultanate of Lanao, Sultanate of Maguindanao), a number of Buddhist and Taoist temples, and the numerous indigenous tribes. Mindanao crisis: A city on fire. All of a sudden, the Philippines is grappling with the spectre of ISIL and, for some, Marcosian authoritarianism

Mindanao referendum: Vote on autonomy could bring - CN

FAST FACTS: Poverty in Mindanao - Rapple

  1. Conflict between Moro1 groups seeking an independent state in Mindanao, and the Government of the Philippines (GPH) has been ongoing for four decades (Heydarian, 2015, p. 1). After numerous attempts to resolve the conflicts, a final peace agreement between the Government of the Philippines (GPH) and th
  2. On 10 December, Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte announced the end of martial law in Mindanao after opting against an extension, on the advice of military and police chiefs. The emergency measure, which was first imposed in the restive region in response to an ISIS-led siege of Marawi city in May 2017, had previously been extended three times and is now set to expire on 31 December. Two years after ISIS were defeated in Marawi, the jihadist threat has been reduced to a more manageable scale.
  3. gly successful, plan to eli
  4. As long as the underlying conditions of instability remain present in Mindanao, transnational terror groups such as ISIS and aspiring militants from across the region will seek to take advantage of the situation. These links pose the biggest challenge to the ongoing peace process in the Philippines’ troubled south. Despite efforts on both sides to secure a lasting peace, the spread of ISIS’ global ideology to the region continues to aid recruitment, giving new meaning and impetus to the localized battles fought by formerly little-known militant groups such as the Mautes, Abu Sayyaf and now the Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters.
  5. Throughout his first year in office, the Filipino leader obsessively pursued a brutal campaign against illegal drugs, which has come under heavy criticism by Western countries and human rights groups. Duterte also prioritised peace negotiations with communist rebels over talks with the much more powerful Islamist insurgents, particularly the Moro Islamic Liberation Front.
  6. On 2 February 1543, Ruy López de Villalobos was the first Spaniard to reach Mindanao.[16] He called the island "Caesarea Caroli" after Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire (and I of Spain). Shortly after Spain's colonization of Cebu, it moved on to colonize Butuan and the surrounding Caraga region in northeast Mindanao and discovered significant Muslim presence on the island. Over time a number of tribes in Mindanao converted to Roman Catholicism and built settlements and forts throughout the coastal regions. These settlements endured despite attacks from neighboring Muslim Sultanates. The most heavily fortified of them, apart from a short period in 1662 when Spain sent soldiers from the city to Manila after a threat of invasion from the Chinese general Koxinga, was Zamboanga City.[17]
Autor Rainer Werning - Deutsch-Philippinische Freunde e

After years of progressively encouraging peace negotiations between the Philippine government and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF), the country was jolted by a tragic turn of events when 44 members of the elite Special Action Force (SAF) from the Philippine National Police were brutally massacred on January 25. The tragedy was an outcome of a day-long encounter between the SAF. After decades of insurgency, the government of the Philippines is making efforts to deliver peace to Mindanao in the south of the country. Although the creation of the Bangsamoro Transition Authority in 2019 can be seen as an initial success on the road to peace, this entity is faced with a difficult task in managing the transition until the 2022 elections The only way of resolving the conflict without a peace accord being signed is to tackle the root causes of the insurgency, which would undermine recruitment and support for the NPA through improving the livelihoods of the Philippines’ rural poor. This approach alone however would take decades, and without an accompanying peace deal, may not end the violence in its entirety.

Abu Sayyaf Moro Islamic Liberation Front The Abu Sayyaf is the smallest and most radical of the Islamic separatist groups in the southern Philippines. They are known to carry out kidnappings for ransom and bombings to achieve their stated goal of an independent Islamic state i Local authorities have said they are monitoring the recruitment activities of jihadist groups in western Mindanao and are bracing themselves for another Marawi-style attack. Cotabato city has been muted as a possible second target. President Duterte has responded by extending Martial Law in Mindanao until the end of 2018 and has promised to destroy the BIFF, whilst recently-installed military chief Lt. Gen. Rey Leonardo Guerrero has vowed to redeploy resources from Marawi to tackle Islamist groups across the south. Mindanao’s civilian population remains on edge as its security forces maintain a heightened state of alert, having conducted several urban warfare training exercises in recent months to prepare for a repeat scenario. In Marawi last May, the authorities had been caught off guard. Mindanao is generally safe. All of the northern and eastern provinces ( Agusan, Bukidnon, Camiguin, Davao Region, Misamis, Lanao del Norte, Sarangani, South Cotabato, Surigao, Zamboanga Peninsula (northern portion) including the cities of Butuan,.

Mindanao Conflict in the Philippines: Ethno-Religious War

  1. Peace agreement in the Philippines Mindanao <English> Look at the article by chance as I do not believe it , try to put here . the dispute I hear they began the execution of the Government of the Philippines beginning of the conflict in the Philippines
  2. FAST FACTS: Poverty in Mindanao. Decades of armed conflict have hampered development in Mindanao, where most of the Philippines' poorest regions are locate
  3. ation of military operations’ in the city by the armed forces in late-October. A few thousand others have been moved to temporary resettlement villages built by the government, the largest of which is in Sagonsongan and will eventually be able to accommodate 4,600 families.
  4. In the present void, resentment and anger are rising. This could play directly into the hands of the very people who drove Marawi’s residents from their homes. The Philippine military has already voiced concerns over radicalization in the provinces surrounding Marawi, warning that ISIS-linked groups such as the Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters (BIFF) and remnants of the Maute group are actively seeking to recruit new fighters, first targeting young men from the most marginalized communities.
  5. Philippines-Mindanao (1971 - first combat deaths) The Conflict at a Glance. Who (are the main combatants): The Government of the Philippines, supported by the United States and various civilian militia groups, against particular Muslim separatist groups, including the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF), the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF), the Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Movement.
  6. On January 23, 2020, the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) readjusted their timeline for dismantling the ISIS affiliated, Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG). Although the forces claim to have significantly decimated the group by their original deadline of December 31, 2019, they believed that March 31, 2020 was a more realistic campaign timeline

The new decade brought the southern Philippine island of Mindanao the promise of a new era. Martial law, in place since the Islamic State-inspired Maute militant group laid siege to Marawi city in. Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte, center, Al-Hajj Murad, left, chair of Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF), Ghazali Jaafar, MILF vice-chair, and other leaders flash v-signs for peace during.

At first, the Philippine military tried to play down the situation by claiming that everything was under control. Yet, as hours went by, it became increasingly clear that the armed group was far from subdued, as it was still rampaging across the city, taking a Christian priest and several civilians hostage, and vowing to declare an Islamic State "Wilayat" (province) in Mindanao.The BIFF has its roots in the decades-old Muslim separatist insurgency which has been fought on the Philippines’ conflict-plagued southern island of Mindanao since the early 1970s. In its initial stages, the insurgency was fought by the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) founded by Nur Misuari, and later by the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) founded by Hashim Salamat, which broke-off from the MNLF in 1981. Both organizations enjoyed support from large sections of the Muslim population in the Mindanao region, which has long suffered from underdevelopment and high rates of poverty in comparison to other parts of the majority-Catholic country, leaving its residents feeling marginalized.For two months, civil liberties will be curtailed. Civilians can be held in detention merely on suspicion of committing a crime and can be subjected to trial by military tribunal.

All of a sudden, the Philippines is grappling with the spectre of ISIL and, for some, Marcosian authoritarianism. In South Cotabato, is another range of volcanic mountains, this time paralleling the coast. These mountains have a maximum extent of 110 miles (180 km) from northwest to southeast and measures some 30 miles (48 km) across. One of the well-known mountains here is Mount Parker, whose almost circular crater lake measures a mile-and-a-quarter in diameter and lies 300 m (980 ft) below its 2,040 m (6,690 ft) summit. Mount Matutum is a protected area and is considered as one of the major landmarks in the South Cotabato province. Late last year, Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte indicated a willingness to reverse his prior decision to terminate the peace process with the New People’s Army (NPA) – a communist rebel group at odds with Manila since the 1960s. On 26 December, Duterte appealed to Jose Maria Sison – the exiled head of the NPA’s political wing, the Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP) – to return home from exile in the Netherlands for one-on-one talks in an attempt to revive the peace process. Sison replied that while he was open to dialogue, he would only be prepared to meet Duterte in a neighbouring country.The ISIS-affiliated groups which led the siege have been pushed back and many of their leaders killed, leading Defence Secretary Delfin Lorenzana to declare his preference for lifting martial law entirely in November. Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) and Philippine National Police (PNP) chiefs initially suggested extending the measure only in ‘selective areas’ where extremist groups still operate. The provinces of Maguindanao and Sulu have both experienced attacks by ISIS-affiliated groups this year.The discussions sparked by the takeover of Marawi first resulted in strengthened bilateral and trilateral measures agreed between the states most affected. In June, Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines began conducting naval patrols in the Sulu Sea to restrict the movement of jihadist fighters to-and-from Mindanao. These measures were later bolstered by the addition of co-ordinated air patrols to spot suspicious activity from the skies. Indonesia and the Philippines have also agreed to establish a hotline to alert one another about security threats along their shared maritime frontier.

Then in a landmark agreement on 25 January six ASEAN members – Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand – signed-up to a new intelligence-sharing pact labelled the ‘Our Eyes’ initiative. The agreement is expected to facilitate the most extensive counter-terrorism co-operation within ASEAN to-date. It will see senior defence officials from the participating nations meet twice a month, and will allow for the development of a new database of suspected militants which can be accessed by law enforcement agencies across the region.The Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters (BIFF), which played a minor supporting role in the Marawi siege, emerged relatively unscathed and posed a larger threat in its aftermath. In 2018, they regularly fought government troops and carried-out a string of bombings, maiming civilians in restaurants and shopping malls, in the provinces of Maguindanao, North Cotabato and Sultan Kudarat. However, AFP airstrikes and ground operations targeting BIFF hideouts in the rural Liguasan Marsh area of central Maguindanao have dented the group’s capabilities in 2019. In April, regional military commander Maj. Gen. Cirilito Sobejana said the three BIFF factions – the most powerful of which is led by ISIS-affiliated militant Abu Toraife – had been forced into a tactical alliance and resorted to guerrilla-style tactics to survive while under growing pressure. In recent months, the group’s remaining fighters have lain low.The Rio Grande de Mindanao and its main tributaries, the Catisan and the Pulangi, form a valley with a maximum length of 120 miles (190 km) and a width which varies from 12 miles (19 km) at the river mouth to about 60 miles (97 km) in central Cotabato. The southern extensions of this Cotabato Valley extend uninterrupted across a 350-meter (1,150 ft) watershed from Illana Bay on the northwest to Sarangani Bay on the southeast.

First, the factional nature of the NPA – with armed units present in almost every province across the Philippines – and a lack of centralized operational leadership, makes it difficult for the largely symbolic figureheads of the CPP and NDF, responsible for negotiating with the government, to control the activities of their fighters. Whilst a ceasefire is imposed from above, realities on the ground make it easy for violent clashes to occur in a local context. This often leads to further attacks and retaliatory violence, dealing a hammer blow to peace talks at the national level.The BIFF was formed by Ameril Umbra Kato, who was educated in Saudi Arabia and espoused a more radical brand of Islam based on Salafi-Wahhabi ideology, practiced more widely in the Middle East than in Southeast Asia. Frustrated with the MILF’s decision to accept autonomy at the expense of full independence, Kato led around 300 former MILF comrades in a campaign of attacks targeting the military and civilians in rural areas across the provinces of Maguindanao and North Cotabato. The primary aim of the attacks was to disrupt the peace process between the government and the MILF. LUCENA CITY — Exiled Communist Party of the Philippines founder Jose Maria Sison on Sunday said President Rodrigo Duterte was setting the stage for a bigger conflict in Mindanao by vigorously.

Philippinen: Kriegsrecht über Region Mindanao verhängtPhilippinen: Rodrigo Duterte verlängert Kriegsrecht inDer lange Weg zum Frieden | forumZFDPeter Kreuzer | Welt-Sichten

Another of Mindanao's waterfall sites is located in Malabang, 15 miles (24 km) south of Lake Lanao. Here the Jose Abad Santos Falls present one of the nation's scenic wonders at the gateway to a 200-hectare national park development. The MNLF and the MILF both started out fighting for a fully-independent state for the Muslim-majority Moro population in the south, leading to a protracted conflict which has caused more than 100,000 deaths. Yet in recent decades their stance has softened as both groups have turned their attention away from armed struggle and towards peace talks with the government, aimed at securing greater autonomy in the south rather than independence. This shift angered hardline elements within the separatist movement, resulting in the formation of several radical groups to revive the campaign for a fully-independent Muslim state. A breakaway faction of the MNLF – Abu Sayyaf – emerged in 1990 and went on to gain global notoriety after launching a spate of kidnappings in the region and brutally beheading several Western hostages. Twenty years later, in 2010, a second splinter group emerged this time from within the ranks of the MILF, and called itself the Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters. Find Mindanao Latest News, Videos & Pictures on Mindanao and see latest updates, news, information from NDTV.COM. Explore more on Mindanao After five decades of armed resistance, the cycle of conflict will be difficult to break; yet the revival of the peace process represents the only viable path forward. Unless momentum is regained soon, the Philippines’ long-running Maoist insurgency may prove intractable for another generation.

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