NB: STOLPERSTEINE are not only placed for people who died, but also for “survivors”. For example, in front of a house in Amsterdam, a STOLPERSTEIN might be placed for a woman who survived Auschwitz alongside two STOLPERSTEINE for her parents who did not. This “reunites” families. STOLPERSTEINE can also be placed for people who were able to escape to Palestine or South America or survivors of concentration camps. The project also commemorates those who were forced by the circumstances to commit suicide. Therefore, please try to find out as much as you can about whole families before requesting STOLPERSTEINE and include information about people who escaped the Nazis or survived camps as well as those who were deported and murdered.My friend Joseph also wrote about it on his blog: http://needleberlin.com/2016/10/19/sponsoring-stolpersteine/?fbclid=IwAR0LCu0uR6MT4_L71IIjfzJaYjI-he8T-xyZ8rFVQDdNcZfQUg6ztOnRvpc
Salomon Kaolinski i Elisabeth Orcher-Karolinski, resistents, arrestats a Brussel·les assassinats a Auschwitz ITS-Arolsen, International Tracing Service in Bad Arolsen. Große Allee 5 - 9, 34454 Bad Arolsen, Tel.: +49 (5691) 629-0, Fax: +49 (5691) 629-501, E-Mail: email@example.com.Gunter Demnig always places the first STOLPERSTEINE in a new village, town or city. However, once STOLPERSTEINE have been placed in a given village, town or city, it is sometimes possible to organize installations without him. These are called Gemeinschaftsverlegungen (community installations).
STOLPERSTEINE are mainly financed by private donations. Private individuals, institutions, educational establishments, companies, associations or political parties can choose to “sponsor” a STOLPERSTEIN. In Germany, relatives are usually not expected to pay for STOLPERSTEINE placed to commemorate their family members unless they want to. If you are organising a STOLPERSTEIN installation in Germany and are not yourself a relative, please do NOT ask any relatives of victims for money. Outside of Germany, there are not yet enough private donations to cover the demand for STOLPERSTEINE. Therefore, it is the person or organisation who asks for the installation of a STOLPERSTEIN, who has to cover the costs, even if this is a relative. This may change in future. We work on a principle of trust. You will only receive an invoice once the STOLPERSTEINE have been laid. Please do not transfer any money before receiving an invoice. Please indicate the invoice number when transferring money. Karin Richert is responsible for issuing invoices. These are issued after STOLPERSTEINE have been laid. During the research about the data of victims of the Nazis for a Stolperstein (name, fate and address), mostly these sources are used:
Stolpersteine (German expression for stumbling blocks, obstacles, something in the way) is a project of the artist Gunter Demnig. These memorial s are supposed to remind of the people deported and then killed by the Nazis mostly in Nazi concentration camps or extermination camp s.. Those persecuted by the Nazis were Jews, Sinti and Romani people (also called gipsies), members of the. If Gunter Demnig is timetabled to spend the night in the place where you are laying STOLPERSTEINE, we appreciate it if you reserve and cover the costs of hotel accommodation.If possible, STOLPERSTEINE are always placed in front of the last residence of choice - never in front of places that people were forced to move to. Therefore, they should never be placed in front of what the Nazis called “Judenhaeuser” (“Houses for Jews”).
In theory, STOLPERSTEINE can be installed everywhere where the National Socialists committed their crimes between 1933 and 1945, persecuting, humiliating and murdering people. However, because STOLPERSTEINE are (almost always) installed on public ground there does have to be permission from the local authorities. STOLPERSTEINE are usually installed in front of a victim’s last home of choice but can also be placed in front of schools, universities, synagogues or places of work, where people also spent much of their lives.As mentioned above, there is already a huge interest in STOLPERSTEINE, which is growing by the minute, and we do our best to accommodate all requests. However, we cannot meet every demand and certainly cannot grant all requests for STOLPERSTEINE to be laid on a particular day.
What makes some memorials spark a deeply emotional charge, or engender controversy? How do charged sites affect the act of remembering? What does the process of engaging with memorialisation imply? The discussion below grapples with these questions, proposing a new concept, lieux chargés, as an explanatory tool. We explore how, when counter-memorials assume qualities of lieux chargés, they generate afterlives.Please ensure that you have obtained permission for Gunter to park his Peugeot van (VB – GD 2710). In Germany, this can be obtained from the Ordnungsamt. Dear friends of the STOLPERSTEINE, Gunter Demnig's foundation STIFTUNG - SPUREN - Gunter Demnig has been running and organizing the STOLPERSTEINE / STOLPERSCHWELLE project since January 2015. You can find further information about the foundation on our website. Since the STOLPERSTEINE art project develops daily, for which we would like to thank all those who support it and campaign to make. Jüdisches Adressbuch für Gross-Berlin (Jewish Adressbook of Greater Berlin), 1931, facsimile reproduktion with a preface by Hermann Simon, Berlin 1994. Sights St. Nikolai Memorial The ruins of this church, bombed by Allied forces during Operation Gomorrah in 1943, now house a WWII memorial and museum.
Therefore, please try to find out as much as you can about the families of victims before requesting a STOLPERSTEIN.At the moment, there is a waiting period of at least nine months - sometimes more. In countries such as Poland or France, it is not always easy to obtain permission and therefore the wait can be much longer. The earlier we receive your requests, the earlier an appointment will be given. }]);DDG.duckbar.load('images', There are STOLPERSTEINE in Austria, Belgium, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Hungary, Lithuania, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and Ukraine. In 2017, a STOLPERSCHWELLE was placed in Argentina. In 2020, Gunter Demnig will place the first STOLPERSTEINE in Serbia.
Where possible, please request help from the local building authorities (with preparing the holes or removing rubble for example) well in advance of the given date. A STOLPERSTEIN is a cube that is 96 x 96 mm big and 100 mm high. A hole should not be more than 12 cm deep.The idea was first conceived by German artist Gunter Demnig in 1992 to commemorate individual victims of the holocaust. Each block, which begins with “Here lived”, is placed at exactly the last place where the person lived freely before he or she fell victim to Nazi terror and was deported to an extermination camp. Demnig has now laid over 70,000 stones all over Europe and Russia. He personally oversees the installation of each one—a task that keeps Demnig on the road for 300 days a year.Before a STOLPERSTEIN can be laid, permission must be obtained from the local authorities. In Germany, please request a "Genehmigung für das Verlegen von STOLPERSTEINEN im öffentlichen Raum" ("Authorization for laying STOLPERSTEINE in the public realm”) if permission has not already been granted. Outside of Germany, please contact the mayor or the local authorities and request permission if you do not already have it - success will vary according to the country, sometimes it will be a painstaking process, sometimes please be warned that there might not be an answer. Please note that the STOLPERSTEIN team is not responsible for requesting permission - we have found that it is more likely to be granted if the request comes from a third party (for example, a survivor, the descendant of a victim or an association).
A Catalunya, Gunter Demnig va instal·lar les primeres plaques commemoratives a Navàs i el Palà de Torroella, el 9 d’abril del 2015. Posteriorment, per iniciativa del Memorial Democràtic de Catalunya, l'any 2017 s'instal·laren 21 llambordins a Manresa, 10 a Igualada  i 5 a Castellar del Vallès. El 2018 s'estan instal·lant 73 noves llambordes: 3 més a Manresa, 1 als Guiamets, 10 a Olesa de Montserrat, 11 a la Segarra, 7 a Granollers, 16 a Girona i Sabadell, que amb 61 llambordes col·locades és la població dels Països Catalans i de l'Estat espanyol que en té més ara mateix. Today, the Stolpersteine are part of a broader research project about the lives of minorities under the Nazi regime. If you want to find out more, the Infoladen der Landeszentrale für politische Bildung information point should be your first destination. It can be reached easily via the U1 underground, exit Stephansplatz or bus lines M4, M5, 34, 36, 109, 112, exit Stephansplatz. Please be aware that Gunter places STOLPERSTEINE on all days of the week regardless of public or religious holidays - he suggests that people organize unveiling ceremonies on later dates if the laying of a STOLPERSTEINE clashes with a religious holiday.Embedded in the sidewalk, flush with the ground, these cobble-stone sized brass plaques identify the Jewish residents who lived in each of these homes before being murdered in the Holocaust.
No. Gunter Demnig is employed by the foundation “Stiftung – Spuren – Gunter Demnig” and receives a fixed salary. The 120 euros for each STOLPERSTEIN go to the foundation, as do all donations. The non-profit foundation is audited each year.In the 20 years since, Demnig has placed nearly 60,000 Stolpersteine throughout Europe, from Norway to Greece, with more than 7,000 in Berlin alone. Astonished by the demand for these memorials, Demnig has acknowledged that the job has consumed his life.Lolhoffel, 72, whose parents were Nazis, said that Germans must forever commemorate the victims of the Nazis.Berlin addressbooks in the libraries: Zentral- und Landesbibliothek Berlin, online: http://adressbuch.zlb.de/.
In Germany, STOLPERSTEINE are usually financed by private donations. If you would like to sponsor a STOLPERSTEIN, please contact the STOLPERSTEIN association in the town or city that you are interested in. You will find an overview of all the organisations on our homepage (See Contacts). It is of course also possible to support our project and foundation by making a donation, for which we are always very grateful. Stolpersteine in Switzerland mostly remember people who were caught smuggling illegal written material at the German border. In Spain, a large number of Republicans had fled from their country to France after Francisco Franco's victory This is an incomplete list of the roughly 1000 cities and towns that have stolpersteine.It is organized in alphabetical order and by country. Where the number of stolpersteine is known or can be approximated, that information has been included, along with the first installation date, if known . We would appreciate it if the organizers of community installations of STOLPERSTEINE would send us pictures of the event afterwards. Please send pictures to Karin Richert.Gunter Demnig’s artistic project is not only about the victims and their fates but about the installation of the stones which commemorate them. Demnig wants to ensure that the installation of STOLPERSTEINE is respectful: This means making sure that the location of the stone makes sense, as well as ensuring that there is contact with the relatives of those commemorated and others attending the installation. In direct opposition to the Nazis‘ mass extermination policies, Gunter Demnig insists that each Stolperstein be made by hand. He no longer has time to make them himself but the sculptor Michael Friedrichs-Friedlaender makes each stone by hand in his Berlin studio.
You can find documents about people who were persectued during National Socialism in Berlin and ist surroundings in the following four archives: Landesarchiv Berlin (County Archive Berlin), Bundesarchiv (Federal Archive), Entschädigungsbehörde (Office for Reconciliation) and the Brandenburgisches Landeshauptarchiv Potsdam (County Archive of Brandenburg). The team of the Coordination Office will gladly help you with first questions, but the office is no archive and we do not have any files or specific information about persecuted people. Detailed answers can mostly only be found in the archives. Guideline for research When I lived in Berlin a few years ago, my friends Joseph (from Canada) and James (from the US) organized the sponsoring of a ‘Stolpersteine’ memorial in honor of two unknown neighbors of theirs who had been deported during the holocaust. None of us was related to these two sisters in any personal way but this impromptu memorial felt like we were doing our part in keeping their memory and more largely the memory of the holocaust alive. This post reminds me of this gesture of collective resistance against oblivion.It costs 120 euros (incl. VAT) to install a STOLPERSTEIN. This includes the making of the stone and its placement or delivery if applicable, as well as its recording in our database. It does not include accommodation costs which might be incurred (especially abroad) nor does it always cover travel costs.“Standing in front of the houses where the victims lived, loved, ate, and slept gave me the shivers,” said Brita Wagener, Germany’s consul general in New York, describing her reaction to the first Stolpersteine she saw. “A few years ago Stolpersteine were placed in front of my high school to remember the Jewish students.”
For Gunter Demnig, people who died in concentration camps as part of the Nazis’ mass extermination program were murdered, and therefore the most common “fate” is ERMORDET (MURDERED) even if someone died of tuberculosis for instance. FLUCHT IN DEN TOD (FLIGHT INTO DEATH) is used in cases of suicide. The word EMIGRATED is not used, instead ESCAPE, YEAR and DESTINATION are preferred.With hundreds of things to see in Berlin, few tourists pay attention to what lies under their feet. The barely four inch by four inch blocks of brass embedded in the pavement are easy to miss at first. But once you know they exist, you begin to come across them with surprising frequency. Get all the stories you need-to-know from the most powerful name in news delivered first thing every morning to your inboxSTOLPERSTEINE are never placed on/in a wall but always on a sidewalk - usually directly in front of the entrance or underneath the house number. Gunter usually decides where exactly they should be placed at a given location on the day itself. Sights History and Heritage Built on trade, Hamburg has been through Danish, Prussian, French & Nazi rule, and endured fires, floods and diseases. Explore our history.
Artist Günther Demnig founded the Stolpersteine art project in 1995 to commemorate the victims of fascism by placing commemorative cobblestones in front of their former homes. The German verb stolpern means ‘to stumble’ —indicating that passersby are meant both stumble over and stumble upon these small yet powerful memorials.Gunter Demnig's foundation STIFTUNG – SPUREN – Gunter Demnig has been running and organizing the STOLPERSTEINE / STOLPERSCHWELLE project since January 2015. You can find further information about the foundation on our website. Since the STOLPERSTEINE art project develops daily, for which we would like to thank all those who support it and campaign to make sure that society does not forget what happened in the past, there are constant readjustments to our procedures. Please read the following "Steps" attentively to prevent any misunderstandings.Like a Stolperstein, a STOLPERSCHWELLE is 96 mm wide but can be up to one meter in length. It can hold up to six lines of text.. Every stone is engraved individually and placed in front of a building to inform passesrby of the name, date of birth and date of death of individual victims who once lived there.Unlike other holocaust memorials that focus only on Jews, the Stolpersteine honor all victims of the Nazi regime, including Jews, Sinti, Roma, Afro-German, the disabled, the dissident, and the gays. It remembers those who were murdered in camps, as well as those who survived, but also those who escaped by fleeing to Palestine, the US or elsewhere. For this reason you will find Stolpersteine even in countries that were never occupied by Nazi Germany, such as Switzerland and Spain. Stolpersteine in Switzerland mostly remember people who were caught smuggling illegal written material at the German border. In Spain, a large number of Republicans had fled from their country to France after Francisco Franco's victory. They were caught by the Nazis after they had invaded France, and were deported to Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp. About 7,000 Spanish people were held prisoner there, and were subjected to forced labor.
There are cases when hundreds or even thousands of STOLPERSTEINE would have to be installed in a single place. This being effectively impossible and almost unimaginable, Gunter Demnig has come up with an alternative, the STOLPERSCHWELLE (which can be roughly translated as a “Stumbling Threshold”). A STOLPERSCHWELLE can record the fate of a group of victims in a few lines. Like a STOLPERSTEIN, a STOLPERSCHWELLE is 96 mm wide but can be up to one meter in length. If possible, we encourage involving school children in the process of laying STOLPERSTEINE and carrying out research. Experience shows that there is great interest among young people.LEIPZIG-DOESEN SANATORIUM AND NURSING HOME 1933 - 1945 AFTER 1934, 604 PEOPLE WERE SUBJECTED TO COMPULSORY STERILIZATION 624 CHILDREN IN THE "CHILDREN'S SECTION" WERE MURDERED BETWEEN 1939 & 1945 860 DISABLED PEOPLE WERE "TRANSFERRED" BETWEEN JUNE & AUG. 1941 MURDERED IN PIRNA-SONNENSTEIN - 'AKTION T4'The plaques serve as constant reminders to the residents of neighborhoods like Juri’s that the Nazi death machine took so many Jews from the neighborhood. They force residents to think. How would they react if they had a Jewish neighbor who vanished in the night? What would you do if your neighbor were taken away today?
A lecture might be organized for the general public and/or for students or schoolchildren or to raise funds to lay STOLPERSTEINE. Gunter Demnig's fee for a 50-minute lecture followed by a Q&A is 200 euros & 19% VAT.. They both escaped Germany in 1939 via Switzerland and Spain to the USA and survived the Holocaust. Photo credit: The Profitcy/Wikimedia
Hi ha un projecte per posar-ne per recordar els vuit olotins deportats, dels quals quatre van sobreviure, 33 persones a diversos municipis de l'Alt Empordà, així com a Sant Feliu de Guíxols. Al novembre 2018 serà el cas de Palma on fins ara es van identificar unes deu víctimes. The requests to lay memorial plaques come from different groups, usually the relatives of the victims, but also from current residents of the homes previously occupied by the victims, and schools they went to. Each application is thoroughly researched by the local neighborhood Stolpersteine groups comprising of volunteers, before they can decide where and when the laying of stone can take place. Such is the demand for these plaques that a request can take six months to fulfill.Each STOLPERSTEIN costs 120 euros. If Gunter Demnig is timetabled to spend a night in the place where you are laying STOLPERSTEINE, we also expect you to reserve and cover the costs of hotel accommodation. This is only necessary if Gunter Demnig stays the night before or after in “your” village, town or city and this is only clear once the timetable has been fixed (usually six months before).
Stolpersteine in Switzerland mostly remember people who were caught smuggling illegal written material at the German border. In Spain, a large number of Republicans who fled from Spain to France after Francisco Franco 's victory were caught by the Nazis after they had invaded France, and were either handed over to the Vichy regime , or deported. “I can’t think of a better form of remembrance,” he says. “If you want to read the stone, you must bow before the victim.”Exceptions might be made if a street no longer exists or if there is a reason for placing a STOLPERSTEIN in front of a place of employment for example. In such cases it might bear the heading HIER LERNTE (HERE STUDIED), HIER LEHRTE (HERE TAUGHT), HIER ARBEITETE (HERE WORKED) or HIER PRAKTIZIERTE (HERE PRACTICED) instead of HIER WOHNTE (HERE LIVED).Gunter Demnig no longer remembers exactly how the name came about. But what is certain is that he chose the name before knowing that there would be more than one installation. He liked the double meaning of the German word because he want to provoke people into “stumbling” mentally. Contrary to what certain online sources claim, Gunter Demnig did NOT want to create a link to a certain anti-Semitic expression apparently used in Nazi Germany that he did not even know. When asked about the name these days, Gunter Demnig tends to cite a schoolchild who once answered a journalist’s enquiry as to whether people could actually stumble on a STOLPERSTEIN and trip thus: “You don’t trip on a STOLPERSTEIN, you stumble with your head and your heart.”
Els stolpersteine (paraula plural alemanya que significa «pedres, llambordes o llambordins de topada o per ensopegar»; singular stolperstein) són petits monuments creats per l'artista alemany Gunter Demnig en memòria de víctimes del nazisme. Actualment n'hi ha més de 75.000 distribuïdes a més 1.800 ciutats d'una vintena de països, com Alemanya, Àustria, Catalunya, Hongria, Països Baixos, Bèlgica, Txèquia, Polònia, Ucraïna, Itàlia i Noruega. En pocs anys, han esdevingut el memorial més llarg del món. La primera pedra a la península Ibèrica es va posar el 2015 a Navàs. Són un petit monument d'admonició que es posa a la vorera davant del darrer lloc on va viure d'una víctima del nacionalsocialisme, abans que l'arrestessin o deportessin. Segons l'artista, el qui ho mira s'ha d'inclinar per llegir el text, un signe de respecte de la persona eliminada. A la pàgina d'entrada al web del projecte es diu: Bank details for the foundation “Stiftung-Spuren-Gunter Demnig”: Recipient: STIFTUNG-SPUREN-Gunter Demnig Bank: Volksbank Köln Bonn eG IBAN: DE91 3806 0186 4518 0470 14 BIC: GENODED1BRS Reason for payment: Donation for Stiftung-Spuren-Gunter Demnig Due to the COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic, large-scale public and private events are prohibited in Hamburg through the end of August. Exact measures are constantly developing, so be sure to check back for updates regarding smaller and medium-sized events.The prohibition does not apply to events that serve to maintain public security and order, provide services under public law, supply the population or provide health care for the population.Small retail businesses and shops are operating with some restrictions. Face masks are required on public transport and in other public areas, especially when shopping and when others are nearby. About Hamburg History The city of Hamburg has a hanseatic history of trade, autonomy and economic power, but also of hardship and war. Stolpersteine in Germany are usually financed by sponsors. If you would like to sponsor a STOLPERSTEIN in Germany, please get in touch with the appropriate association (See CONTACTS page on our website).
We try to announce Gunter Demnig’s timetable six months in advance. Once times and dates have been fixed, they remain subject to change. This might be because of last-minute cancellations or for reasons pertaining to weather, illness or production. Sometimes, Gunter’s tours have to be re-arranged entirely. Although we do our best to meet all requests, we reserve the right to postpone or cancel the installation of STOLPERSTEINE in case of emergency.Reminders of Germany’s dark past confront 7-year-old Juri Hesselmann each morning as he walks to school with his father.
The word “ermordet” – “murdered” – is almost always on the plaques. Or sometimes the plaque says “flucht in den tod” – “killed while trying to escape.”It’s easiest to simply contact a local STOLPERSTEIN group (please see the Contacts page) or a town to ask for an overview. There are several online databases. We do not yet have our own digital database but are currently working on one that should go online by early 2020. Shop The Largest Assortment Of Fabrics & Crafts At JOANN. Great In-Store & Online Deals. Shop & Save On All Your Craft Needs: Sewing, Needle Art, Paper Crafting, Décor & More For STOLPERSTEINE outside of Germany, please be aware that you might have to wait for a year or two before obtaining an appointment.“The Stolpersteine are our permanent reminders,” said Hesselmann, noting that their importance grows as the number of survivors who can tell the story of the Holocaust shrinks.
Upon request, Gunter Demnig will hold a lecture in the form of a PowerPoint presentation about his project. He will talk about his career as an artist from 1968 onwards.According to Helmut Lolhoffel, a spokesman for the Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf Stolpersteine project, there were 13,200 Jewish residents deported from this area of Berlin and murdered by the Nazis. The Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf area includes Juri’s neighborhood. Altogether there were 55,000 Jews deported from Berlin and killed.ROECHLING'S IRON AND STEELWORKS 1941 - 1944 FORCED LABOR FOR ULTIMATE VICTORY THOUSANDS WERE FORCED TO WORK FOR THE GERMAN ARMS INDUSTRY- MALNOURISHMENT - ABUSE - ACCIDENTS - DISEASE KILLED HUNDREDS. There are also already more than 25 STOLPERSCHWELLEN. We continue to receive more and more requests and unfortunately the waiting lists are getting longer. We do our best to ensure that all requests are answered but please be aware that it can sometimes take time for STOLPERSTEINE to be installed. We appreciate your patience and understanding.The Stolpersteine are only about 10 cubic centimetres, but togetherr they form a large part of a Europe-wide commemoration project. In total, there are about 56,000 such stones laid out all over the world. Every month, around 400 new stones are added to the project. In Hamburg alone, you can find 5,000. In front of City Hall, 20 stones are dedicated to the murdered members of the Hamburg Parliament legislative assembly. On the Grindelhof street, 18 cobblestones commemorate the teachers of a Jewish school.
Documentation of the persecution of the Jews: Bundesarchiv, Dienstort Berlin-Lichterfelde, Finckensteinallee 63, 12205 Berlin, Tel.: 03018/7770-0, Fax: 03018/7770-111, E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.It is of course also possible to support our project and foundation by making a donation, for which we are always very grateful. We can only issue receipts for non-binding donations.It is also advisable to inform the current inhabitants of buildings in front of which STOLPERSTEINE will be laid. This is not compulsory, however, because the sidewalk is usually public property. Nonetheless, it can prevent later problems or controversy.Files of the „Oberfinanzpräsidenten Berlin-Brandenburg“: Brandenburgisches Landeshauptarchiv, Zum Windmühlenberg, Postfach 600449, 14469 Potsdam/Bornim, Tel.: 0331 5674-0, Fax: 0331 5674-212, E-Mail: email@example.com.The stones neither protrude nor demand attention; rather, they are quiet, humble invitations to the observer. Typical of counter-memorials, these stones are unexpected encounters; as one observer noted, ‘You may not intend to visit the memorial, yet this one will visit you!’ (Høg Hansen 2008:173).
There are certain cases when hundreds or thousands of Stolpersteine would have to be laid in a single place. This being almost impossible, Gunter Demnig has come up with an alternative, the STOLPERSCHWELLE (which can be roughly translated as “Stumbling Threshold”). A STOLPERSCHWELLE can record the fate of a group of victims in a few lines. These are translations of the texts that have been included on Stolperschwellen that have been placed in Germany:Gunter Demnig can place STOLPERSTEINE in up to 12 addresses (maximum) per day. When planning his itinerary, please ensure you leave enough time for Gunter to travel from one address to the next.Gunter tries to keep families together by placing STOLPERSTEINE for them as a unit -– stones for parents will be placed above those for children in this case.Landesarchiv Berlin (County Archive Berlin), files „Opfer des Faschismus“ (victims of fascism), Wiedergutmachungsakten (reconciliation files), Eichborndamm 115-121, 13403 Berlin, Tel.: (030) 90264-0, Fax: (030) 90264-201, E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Gunter Demnig commemorates individuals. The National Socialists wanted to exterminate people, turn them into numbers and erase their memory. Demnig wants to reverse this process and return individual names to places where people once lived.Ethnographic fieldwork with the artist in eight countries over the course of two years, took us to over 50 installations. We observed a range of improvised rituals, interviewing descendants and local participants. The concept of lieux chargés (loosely translated: ‘salient sites’) arose from analysing this research. Lieux chargés conjoins the term objet chargé and Pierre Nora’s notion of lieux de mémoire, but crucially adds a dynamic dimension: the memorials in question are participatory over a longue durée. We recognise the centrality of affective affordances, materiality and time in the conception of lieux chargés. Thus lieux chargés animate the afterlives of counter-memorials.
Despite its vast appeal, not everyone supports the drive. Charlotte Knobloch, the president of the Jewish Community of Munich and Upper Bavaria, feels it’s undignified to trample on the names of the victims of the Nazi regime. “After all, was it not the National Socialists who used their boots to humiliate and hurt?” she asks.The artist Gunter Demnig is behind the STOLPERSTEINE. He came up with the idea of this art monument in the early 1990s and has installed almost every STOLPERSTEIN himself. To ensure that the project continues, he set up the foundation “Stiftung – Spuren – Gunter Demnig”.Allegra Lab aims to enliven the “dead space” between standard academic publication and fast moving public debates. It addresses sociopolitical issues informed by the beauty of ethnography and the critical potential of anthropology.Gunter Demnig’s motto is: ONE VICTIM - ONE STONE. There are no collective STOLPERSTEINE (please see STOLPERSCHWELLE below). This project commemorates all victims of National Socialism: Jews; Sinti; Roma; Jehovah’s Witnesses; homosexuals; mentally and/or physically disabled people; people persecuted for their political views, their religion, their sexual orientation or the color of their skin; forced laborers; men considered deserters; people who were persecuted on grounds that they were “asocial” such as homeless people or prostitutes – anyone who was persecuted or murdered by the Nazi regime between 1933 and 1945.This project has taken on its own iterative logic. The more stones there are, the more they are seen, discussed, and shared, generating further afterlives. An interlocutor noted, ‘it’s become like a status symbol–every town needs its Stolperstein.’ To wit, there is a one-to-two year waiting list for new commissions. Furthermore, identifying these memorials as lieux chargés enables a reckoning of the Stolpersteine proliferation as afterlives.
Sights Neuengamme Memorial The grounds of the former Neuengamme concentration camp now serve as a memorial and research centre in Bergedorf. In 1991, Gunter Demnig used white paint to mark the path that 1000 Sinti and Roma had been forced to take when they were deported 50 years earlier. After the paint had faded, he made the artwork permanent by engraving brass-plates and fixing them into the ground. As he was doing this, an elderly lady praised his project but at the same time expressed doubt that “gypsies” had lived in her neighbourhood. Thus, Gunter Demnig understood that many people no longer knew who had lived in their areas, that many stories had disappeared. So he came up with a project that, on the one hand, would bring commemoration to the streets and to the villages, towns and cities of Germany and at the same time would mark the places where the victims of the Nazis had lived and where the crimes against them had begun. The conceptual STOLPERSTEINE were originally intended only for a one-off exhibition. After they were well-received by the relatives of victims, Gunter Demnig decided to expand his project and continue making STOLPERSTEINE, which now exist all over Europe.
In Germany, help is compulsory. In other countries, it depends on individual situations but it is preferable if there is help on hand.Es tracta de llambordins fets de formigó, de 10 cm per 10 cm i coberts d'una fulla de llautó en la qual es graven les dades essencials de la persona. Han de fer aturar el vianant i fer-lo pensar en la persona desapareguda, assassinada, torturada. Ensenyen l'omnipresència del mal en la vida quotidiana. Hi ha un llambordí únic per a cada persona. Tothom pot proposar a l'artista la creació d'una pedra per un preu modest. Cada llambordí està fet a mà, un per un, un gest de respecte i d'humanitat que vol explícitament contrastar amb l'exterminació industrialitzada perpetrada pels nazis. El juny 2011, Gunter Demnig va tenir un conflicte amb l'administració fiscal de Colònia. Aquests buròcrates no acceptaven les creacions com a obres d'art, amb un IVA del 7% sinó que els consideraven com productes industrials per als quals cal pagar el 19% d'IVA. El conflicte encara no s'ha resolt, però va pactar-se un primer compromís: l'artista no ha de pagar un suplement per als llambordins realitzats els darrers set anys. Demnig insisteix que cada objecte és únic, personalitzat i només creat després d'una recerca històrica profunda. STOLPERSTEINE are commemorative stones and not gravestones. They are supposed to provoke people into thinking about what happened to individuals and families during the Nazi era. Families were torn apart and STOLPERSTEINE can at least bring them back together symbolically. We prefer not to pass judgement on who was a victim of National Socialism or not: We cannot begin to measure the suffering of a person who had to hide and/or leave their home or survived one or several concentration camps and do not want to have to.
We work on a principle of trust. You will only receive an invoice once the STOLPERSTEINE have been laid. Please do not transfer any money before receiving an invoice. Please indicate the invoice number when transferring money.If somebody survived in a concentration camp, then please use the word BEFREIT (LIBERATED) instead of SURVIVED.Archival material of Jewish communities, institutions and persons: Centrum Judaicum, Oranienburger Str 28/30 10117 Berlin, Archiv und Bibliothek, Tel: 030 - 880284-25 /-26, Fax: 030 – 88028- 405, E-Mail: email@example.com. Rachel Lehr is a research fellow in the Department of Geography at the University of Colorado - Boulder. She co-authored The Carpetbaggers of Kabul and Other American-Afghan Entanglements with Jennifer Fluri, and the award-winning The Sands of Oxus with John Perry. Lehr’s collaboration with Mandel examining Stolpersteine began when she was a Fulbright Scholar in Norway in 2017. Archival material of Jewish communities, institutions and persons: Centrum Judaicum, Oranienburger Str 28/30 10117 Berlin, Archiv und Bibliothek, Tel: 030 - 880284-25 /-26, Fax: 030 - 88028- 405, E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Archives of the der Memorial sites of former concetration camps Sometimes, there might be a case for not having a heading at all, for example if some-body did not live in a house at the time of deportation.